Stagnation rather than its Cause? Acta Oeconomica , 67 ( S ): 67 – 77 . 10.1556/032.2017.67.s.6 Prasad , E. S. – Rajan , R. G. – Subramanian , A. ( 2007 ): ForeignCapital and Economic Growth . NBER Working Paper , No. 13619 . PWT ( 2017
In this article, the authors give a rich-in-data account of Hungary's structural transition to a market economy between 1993 and 1998. Although the availability of statistics also puts constraint on which period to study, these years may as well be later termed the first phase of post-socialist transition. The article has three main parts. In the first, structural changes of the whole economy are presented; the structural shifts in output, value added, and investments are analysed. The diffusion of private ownership and foreign capital and the process of decentralisation and concentration are also discussed. In the second part, the manufacturing industries are in focus. With an interesting analytical tool – the growth matrix – the authors present a possible approach of studying sectoral development. By distinguishing the factor needs of the manufacturing industries, the factor intensities of production are also easy to understand and yet reasonable for studying the adjustment to modernisation trends. In the third part, the structural changes of foreign trade are shown: export orientation, import dependency, the relationship between export and technology are the main concerns of analysis. The impact of FDI on the manufacturing industries' foreign trade and performance close the third part of the article.
The article examines the significance of institutional quality for economic performance during transition. Institutions are the rules of the game. In any economy the most important institutions are the legal system, the state, the structure of the financial system and the system of international relations. The process of economic transition in Central and Eastern Europe was mainly a process of massive institutional changes which were spurred by economic causes and also themselves had significant economic consequences. The article examines the institutional changes in transition economies and shows that institutions matter. The first decade of transition gave the impression that it is important to build as good institutional framework as possible and as fast as possible. But today, with the quick growth of some South Eastern European economies, it seems not to hold that the better the institutions the better the economic performance, but rather to (at least) establish some satisfactory level of institutional quality is important to resume growth, which can also be assisted by foreign capital.
Prasad, E. — Rogoff, K. — Wei, S. — Kose, M. (2003):
Effects of Financial Globalization on Developing Countries
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Rana, P. B. (1987): Foreigncapital, savings and growth in the Asian region
Pitti, Zoltán (2001): A külföldi tőke szerepe a hazai gazdaság új növekedési pályára állításában [The Role of ForeignCapital in the Formation of Hungary’s New Path of Growth].
excessive credit growth) may lead to an increase of foreigncapital inflows, which via currency exchange appreciation may in turn increase the risk of foreign currency exposures. Prolonged expansive monetary policy induces the over-indebtedness of households
exposure to FDI remained almost the same ( Hunya 2017; Sass 2020 ). Overall, the Visegrad countries still rely mainly on foreigncapital in their development path ( Bohle – Greskovits 2018; Sass 2021a ). Rather, this partly reoriented strategy added to