This paper examines the changes that took place in the image of the Ottoman Turks in Hungary during the 19th century. Though the Ottoman attacks in the 15th and 16th centuries destroyed the medieval Kingdom of Hungary and the following 150 years of the Ottoman rule in Hungary had considerable negative consequences, by the end of the 19th century negative sentiments regarding the Turks shifted, and during the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878 there were enthusiastic pro-Turkish demonstrations in Budapest. The paper analyses the causes of this turn in Hungarian historical thinking and demonstrates, e.g. through the themes of the most popular historical paintings of the 19th century, that more recent anti-Habsburg and anti-Russian sentiments among the Hungarians led to active support for the Turks, if only in a peaceful way, since the foreign policy of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy remained neutral.
This study concerns itself with the first Imperial Envoy Gerard Veltwijck (ca. 1500–1555), who negotiated with the Ottoman Sultan Süleymān. Using newly discovered as well as recently published sources, it will focus on the part this diplomat of Charles V played in the negotiations with the Sub-lime Porte and on the considerable problems the French King and his representatives in Istanbul experienced during the talks. The Most Christian King thus became a victim of his ambivalent foreign policy while his alliance with the Sultan experienced a severe crisis. Finally, this study tries to demonstrate the impact of a diplomatic sojourn in the Levant for the envoy, as such a mission was very often followed by a considerable and far from only financial reward.
The formation of the Rouran khaganate was generated by the regional ternary structure in Inner Asia comprising the Song state (in southern China), the semi-nomadic buffer empire Toba Wei (in northern China) and the Rouran imperial confederation (in Outer Mongolia). The khaganate was characterised by an administrative-political system that was typical of the nomadic empires of Eurasia, specifically, a structure of core and periphery, distant exploitation of agrarian societies, two wings and a military hierarchy based on the decimal principle, title of khagan. The foreign policy of the Rouran khaganate was based on the traditional principles of the Inner Asian nomads. Out of several classical strategies concerning the neighbouring agricultural nations (plunder, distant exploitation, tribute, migration with subsequent assimilation), they chose the method of applying distant pressure on Chinese domains, alternating raids with periods of peaceful extortion of rich gifts.
.g., Czechoslovakia and Romania), there was no chance of improving international relations and, along with it, international tourism. After the negotiations with the League of Nations, Hungarian foreignpolicy could not achieve spectacular successes, so Hungarian
books, mainly on questions of foreignpolicy. President Herbert Hoover nominated him to the position of Vice Governor of the Philippines, but partly because of the backlash regarding an earlier book Nicholas Roosevelt had written on that country, Hoover
cases based on foreignpolicy’ rather than the wishes of the deceased” (pp. 304–306). Leafstedt also reports that Samuel DiFalco, the judge in charge of the case in New York Surrogate Court, was a “stern opponent of communism” who reminded Benjamin
Hungarian politics and for public opinion. Hungarian foreignpolicy did not consider the declining Ottoman Empire as a threat anymore. This place was taken by the Russian Tsar and the small nations that followed the same religion, and whose nationalisms were
's ambassador stated that there would be no change in its foreignpolicy, since it did not wish to interfere in relations between South Korea and North Korea. 98 –1980: A June 11, 1980, report from the Hungarian embassy in Kuwait speaks of South Korea
change in foreignpolicy that led to the listing of several persons in Western Europe who had been convicted by the People's Prosecutor's Office. 66 After that, however, there is only one official source linked to the events of Dohnányi's prosecution