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A total of 32 bacterial isolates including Mesorhizobium (N=10), Azotobacter (N=12) and phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (N=10) were isolated and tested for siderophore, HCN, ammonia, indole acetic acid production and phosphate solubilization in vitro . The bacterial cultures were positive for siderophore, HCN and ammonia. Among the isolates, M. ciceri RC3 and A. chrococcum A4 displayed 35 and 14 μg ml −1 of IAA, respectively, whereas Bacillus produced 19 ( Bacillus PSB1) and 17 μg ml −1 ( Bacillus PSB10) of IAA in Luria Bertani broth. The diameter of the P solubilization zone varied between 4 ( Bacillus PSB1) and 5 mm ( Bacillus PSB10) and a considerable amount of tricalcium phosphate (7 and 8 μg ml −1 by Bacillus PSB1 and Bacillus PSB10, respectively) was released in liquid medium, with a concomitant drop in pH. The effects of N 2 -fixing and PS bacteria on the growth, chlorophyll content, seed yield, grain protein and N uptake of chickpea plants in field trials varied considerably between the treatments. Nodule number and biomass were significantly greater at 90 days after sowing (DAS), decreasing by 145 DAS. Seed yield increased by 250% due to inoculation with M. ciceri RC3 + A. chroococcum A4 + Bacillus PSB10, relative to the control treatment. Grain protein content ranged from 180 ( Bacillus PSB1) to 309 ng g −1 ( M. ciceri RC3 + A. chroococcum A4 + Bacillus PSB10) in inoculated chickpea. The N contents in roots and shoots differed considerably among the treatments.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: W.T. Xue, A. Gianinetti, R. Wang, Z.J. Zhan, J. Yan, Y. Jiang, T. Fahima, G. Zhao, and J.P. Cheng

Crop seeds are the main staples in human diet, especially in undeveloped countries. In any case, the diet needs to be rich not only in macro-nutrients like carbohydrates and protein, but also in micro-nutrients. Nevertheless, both the macro- and micro-nutrients presented in seeds largely vary in consequence of field and environment conditions. In this research, 60 lines of a barley RILs population segregating for the SSR marker Hvm74, which is genetically linked to the GPC (grain protein content) locus (HvNAM-1), were studied in 4 environments (two growing years and two field managements) by carrying out a comprehensive profile of seed macro- (starch, total nitrogen and total soluble protein) and micro-nutrients (phytate, phenolics, flavonoids, Pi, Zn and Fe). Under field conditions, all the components were largely affected by the environment, but TN (total nitrogen) exhibited high genotype contribution, while micro-nutrients displayed higher genotype × environments interactions (GEI) than macro-nutrients. In order to approach the effects of carbon-nitrogen (C–N) balance on other seed components, two C/N ratios were calculated: C/TN (CNR1) and C/TSP (CNR2). CNR2 exhibited stronger negative correlations with all micro-nutrients. Hence, the significant GEI and its negative relationships with CNR2 highlighted the different characters of micro-nutrients in barley seeds.

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The yield, protein and starch content of Martonvásár maize hybrids belonging to different FAO groups were examined in experiments involving early, optimal and late sowing dates in two different years (drought — 2007, favourable water supplies — 2008) on a calcareous chernozem soil with loam texture at the Látókép Experimental Station of the Centre of Agricultural Sciences and Engineering, University of Debrecen.Sowing date had a significant effect on maize grain yield in the dry year. The grain yields of hybrids with longer growing periods were significantly higher than those with shorter growing periods in both years, but they reacted sensitively to the change in sowing date in the dry year. Due to the rainfall distribution in the growing season, sowing date did not modify the performance of the hybrids in the year with favourable water supplies. Sowing date had a significant effect on the grain protein content in the dry year, with significantly higher values after late sowing than after early or optimal sowing. Averaged over the sowing dates, the protein content of the FAO 200 hybrid was significantly higher in both years than that of hybrids in other FAO groups. In the dry year, the greatest difference in protein content could be observed between the early and late sowing dates for hybrids in all four FAO groups. A negative correlation was found between yield and protein content. Sowing date significantly increased the starch content of maize in the favourable year, with a significant difference between early and late sowing dates.In the dry year higher starch contents were recorded for all the hybrids and for all the sowing dates than in the favourable year. In the dry year, sowing date only caused a significant difference in the starch content in the case of FAO 200 sown at optimal and late sowing dates. In the favourable year, a significant difference was only obtained for the starch content of the FAO 400 hybrid sown at early and late sowing dates. Satisfactory quality can only be achieved if suitable genotypes are grown with appropriate technologies.

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582 Law, C.N., Payne, P.I. 1983. Genetical aspects of breeding for improved grain protein content and type in wheat. Journal of Cereal Science 1 :79

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to the grain protein content locus Gpc-B1. Theor. Appl. Genet. 112 :97–105. Dubcovsky J. High-temperature adult plant (HTAP) stripe rust resistance gene Yr36 from Triticum turgidum

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63 70 Birch, C.J. and Long, K.E. (1990). Effect of nitrogen on the growth, yield and grain protein content of barley ( Hordeum vulgare ). Australian Journal of

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. Quantitative trait loci influencing grain protein content in tetraploid wheats. Plant Breed. 115 :310–316. Gale M.D. Quantitative trait loci influencing grain protein content in

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of environment and grain protein content on malt extract yield. J. Inst. Brew. 106 :111–115. Montoya J.L. Mechanisms of malt extract development in barleys from different

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of grain protein content, grain yield and thousand-kernel weight in bread wheat. Theor. Appl. Genet. 106 :1032–1040. Charmet G. Genetic analysis of grain protein content, grain

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: N. Pržulj, M. Mirosavljević, P. Čanak, M. Zorić, and J. Boćanski

. Mladenov , V. , Banjac , B. , Krishna , A. , Miloševic , M. 2012 . Relation of grain protein content and some agronomic traits in European cultivars of winter wheat . Cereal Res. Commun. 40 : 532 – 541

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