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Linguatula serrata (Fröhlich, 1789) is a ubiquitous parasite species belonging to pentastomids, which has been reported frequently from domestic herbivores of Iran. This study was carried out to elucidate the pathological changes caused by the nymphal stage of L. serrata in the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) of goats. Jejunal and ileal MLNs of slaughtered goats infected with L. serrata were collected and fixed in 10% neutral formal saline. Histopathological changes included follicular necrosis accompanied by a loss of lymphocytes and oedematous cystlike spaces. Granulomatous lesions were formed by mononuclear cell infiltration and necrotic tissue. Some lymphocytes were apoptotic with chromatolysis. A more frequent vascular abnormality was vasculitis. These findings show that larval migration is the main factor to initiate trauma and cause irritation in the MLNs of goats. Since goats are habitual intermediate hosts in Iran, rigorous inspection of the MLNs of slaughtered goats is recommended in order to decrease the chance of human infection through the consumption of raw visceral organs of goats.

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The presence of Yersinia ruckeri, the causal agent of enteric redmouth dis- ease (ERM) in salmonids and a few other freshwater fish, has so far been reported from a variety of sources including the intestine of healthy carp. Since there are no data on the pathogenicity of this bacterium for carp, 15 fingerlings were experi- mentally infected by intraperitoneal injection of about 5 × 105 cells. Thirteen in- jected fish were moribund or died within 4 days with septicaemic lesions. Two survivors were sampled on Day 28 after infection. Yersinia ruckeri was reisolated from the internal organs of all experimental fish. By histopathological examination moribund fish had generalised bacteriaemia with inflammation, degeneration and necrotic foci in kidney, liver and spleen, corresponding to findings described pre- viously in ERM of rainbow trout. Survivors of challenge on Day 28 had a chronic disease characterised by prominent peritonitis and enteritis, exhaustion of the erythroid, granuloid and lymphoid components in haematopoietic kidney tissue as well as focal degeneration and necrosis in organs. These data indicate a high sen- sitivity of carp to intraperitoneal infection with a relatively low dose of Y. ruckeri.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors:
Branislav Kureljušić
,
Božidar Savić
,
Vesna Milićević
,
Nemanja Jezdimirović
,
Oliver Radanović
,
Jadranka Žutić
, and
Christiane Weissenbacher-Lang

Abstract

At a commercial farrow-to-feeder pig system with 2,100 sows in Serbia, lesions resembling porcine ear necrosis syndrome were observed in 80% of the weaned pigs at 45–50 days of age. Pathomorphological examinations were carried out on 10 pigs that had been found dead. The gross lesions ranged from mild, superficial dermatitis to severe, deep inflammation with exudation, ulceration and necrosis. Histopathological examination revealed erosive and ulcerative dermatitis of the pinna with neutrophilic and lymphocytic infiltration and bacterial colonies in the crusts. Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA strain), Staphylococcus hyicus and Streptococcus group C were cultivated from eight, S. hyicus from two ear tissue scraping samples. All 10 samples were positive for treponemes and phylogenetic analysis of two polymerase chain reaction products confirmed the relationship to Treponema (T.) medium/vincentii and Treponema pedis. Treponemes were also detected in seven oral swabs that were analysed to obtain evidence of the transmission of this bacterium by ear biting. The contribution of non-infectious factors to this misbehaviour could not be ruled out as the crude protein concentration of the feed was inappropriate and the climate of the pig house was suboptimal. The concentrations of selected mycotoxins in the feed were not elevated. However, the contribution of both infectious and non-infectious factors to the onset of disease was most probable.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors:
Mohamed Abdelsalam
,
Mamdouh Y. Elgendy
,
Mohamed Shaalan
,
Mohamed Moustafa
, and
Masayuki Fujino

Accurate and rapid identification of bacterial pathogens of fish is essential for the effective treatment and speedy control of infections. Massive mortalities in market-sized red tilapia (Oreochromis spp.) were noticed in mariculture concrete ponds in northern Egypt. Histopathological examination revealed marked congestion in the central vein of the liver with the presence of bacterial aggregates inside the lumen and in the vicinity of the central vein. A total of 12 isolates of streptococci were obtained from the moribund fish. This study documented the ability of the MicroSeq 500 16S bacterial sequencing method to accurately identify Streptococcus agalactiae and S. dysgalactiae mixed infections from moribund red tilapia that were difficult to be recognised by the commercial biochemical systems. The continuously decreasing cost of the sequencing technique should encourage its application in routine diagnostic procedures.

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Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) causes chronic non-fatal diseases in the poultry industry with a remarkable decrease in feed consumption, egg production and other production indices. To study the genetic characteristics of MG isolates in commercial and backyard poultry flocks, 21 positive samples from different regions of Iran were analysed in the period 2012–2017. Typical macroscopic and histopathological lesions of the upper respiratory tract and lungs were found, similar to those reported by other researchers. A 298–361 bp part of the mgc2 gene was sequenced and analysed. Based on the phylogenetic analysis, the Iranian MG isolates fell into four distinct subgroups. The nucleotide difference between subgroups 1 and 4 was remarkable (91.6–94.9%). A 22-amino-acid insertion was present in two of the studied MG isolates, not observed in other vaccine and standard MG strains. The Iranian Veterinary Organisation (IVO) should consider the observed diversity of prevalent MG isolates from both commercial and backyard flocks in designing the strategy for controlling MG. More studies are needed to understand modifications in MG antigenicity and pathogenicity because of the observed genetic variations.

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To demonstrate the relationship between tumour development and virus replication, eight specific-pathogen-free pullets of line P2 (Group P; 14 weeks old) and five adult chickens (Group A; 96 weeks old) were inoculated with virulent Marek’s disease virus (vMDV). Five chickens of Group P died or were euthanised due to moribund condition following the development of neoplastic lesions between days 53 and 91. On histopathological examination, these lesions were characterised by the proliferation of lymphoid cells of variable size. On analysis by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the MDV meq gene was detected in Group P from day 21, and it was continuously identified in five chickens until they died or were euthanised. Abnormal signs and histopathological changes were not observed in chickens of Group A. The MDV meq gene was temporarily detected in some chickens of Group A, but it remained almost undetectable throughout the experimental period. In older chickens inoculated with vMDV, the onset of MD lymphoma development tended to be delayed as compared with the young chicks. The relationship between MD lymphoma development and virus replication in older chickens has been suggested. Our data might indicate the underlying existence of an age-related resistance to vMDV challenge.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors:
Katalin Jánosi
,
László Stipkovits
,
Róbert Glávits
,
Tamás Molnár
,
László Makrai
,
Miklós Gyuranecz
,
János Varga
, and
László Fodor

The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate an aerosol infection method with Histophilus somni that closely resembles the natural way of infection of calves. Another aim was to compare the virulence of two H. somni strains by collecting clinical and postmortem data of experimentally infected and control animals. Seventeen conventionally reared 3-month-old calves were divided into three groups. Two groups of six animals each were exposed to suspensions containing H. somni on three consecutive days using a vaporiser mask. The third group of five animals was used as control. The data of individual clinical examination were recorded daily. All animals were exterminated, and gross pathology of all lungs was evaluated on the 15th day after the first infection. Both H. somni strains caused an increase of rectal temperature, respiratory signs, decrease of weight gain, and severe catarrhal bronchopneumonia in both infected groups. Although some chronic lesions were detected in the lungs of the control animals as well, the histopathological findings in the infected and control groups were different. H. somni was recultured from all lungs in the challenged groups but it could not be reisolated or detected by PCR examination in the control group. This is the first paper on aerosol challenge of calves with H. somni using repeated infection and verified by detailed pathological, bacteriological and histopathological examination. The infection method proved to be successful. There was no difference in the virulence of the two H. somni strains used in the trial.

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Since some complications of diabetes mellitus may be caused or exacerbated by an oxidative stress, the protective effects of garlic (Allium sativum) were investigated in the blood and heart of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Twenty-eight male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: control, garlic, diabetic, and diabetic+garlic. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg) in male rats. Rats were fed with raw fresh garlic homogenate (250 mg/kg) six days a week by gavage for a period of 6 weeks. At the end of the 6th week blood samples and heart tissues were collected and used for determination of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), malondialdehyde (MDA) and histological evaluation. Induction of diabetes increased MDA levels in blood and homogenates of heart. In diabetic rats treated with garlic, MDA levels decreased in blood and heart homogenates. Treatment of diabetic rats with garlic increased SOD, GPX and CAT in blood and heart homogenates. Histopathological finding of the myocardial tissue confirmed a protective role for garlic in diabetic rats. Thus, the present study reveals that garlic may effectively modulate antioxidants status in the blood and heart of streptozotocin induced-diabetic rats.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors:
Tibor Magyar
,
Barbara Ujvári
,
Levente Szeredi
,
Norbert Virsinger
,
Ervin Albert
,
Zoltán Német
,
Edit Csuka
, and
Imre Biksi

This paper reports an outbreak of haemorrhagic septicaemia caused by Pasteurella multocida B:2 in beef calves, a disease that has not been described in the Hungarian literature since 1943, and has not been reported to the World Organisation For Animal Health (OIE) since 1970. Acute haemorrhagic septicaemia was confirmed in beef calves on one small farm, and was suspected on two further nearby holdings with concomitant unexplained losses. The source of the infection could not be determined. Apart from a short duration of depression and loss of appetite, the affected calves developed characteristic distal limb oedema. Gross findings in two calves submitted for laboratory examinations included subcutaneous oedema and haemorrhages on serous membranes, and in one case severe pharyngeal lymph node enlargement was observed. Histological examinations revealed lesions characteristic of septicaemia. Moderate to large amounts of Pasteurella antigens were detected in all organs tested by immunohistochemistry. Two isolates of P. multocida (Pm240, Pm241) were cultured from these cases and examined in detail. These were identified as P. multocida ssp. multocida biovar 3. Both were toxA negative and belonged to serotype B:2. Multilocus sequence typing was used to assign these to a new sequence type (ST64) that is closely related to other haemorrhagic septicaemia causing strains of P. multocida regardless of the host.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors:
Zsolt Becskei
,
Sanja Aleksić-Kovačević
,
Miklós Rusvai
,
Gyula Balka
,
Csaba Jakab
,
Tamaš Petrović
, and
Milijana Knežević

The lymphatic organs of 50 pigs from a total of eight farms located at different sites in the epizootiological region of North Bačka County were studied to obtain data on the prevalence of circoviral infections in Serbia. All of the pigs examined had clinical signs suggestive of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS). All pigs underwent necropsy and tissue samples were taken for histopathological, immunohistochemical (IHC) and PCR analysis. The presence of porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) was established by PCR analysis in the organs of the pigs tested. The most frequent histopathological lesions of lymphoid tissue linked with the presence of positive immunostaining for PCV2 Cap antigen confirmed the existence of PMWS in all farms tested in North Bačka County. Using PCR, histopathological and IHC techniques, the presence of PMWS was proved in the Republic of Serbia. During necropsy, generalised enlargement of the lymph nodes was evident. The most common histopathological finding was lymphocyte depletion in the follicular and perifollicular areas of lymph nodes. Infiltration by macrophages was also recorded. By IHC analysis, the cytoplasm of macrophages was shown to contain a large amount of the ORF2-coded Cap antigen of PCV2. Lymphocyte depletion and large numbers of macrophages were recorded in the tonsils, spleen, intestinal lymphatic tissue, Peyer’s patches and ileocaecal valve. The presence of typical granulomatous lesions with multinuclear giant cells (MGCs) was also recorded in the lymphatic tissue. Cap antigen was shown to be present in macrophages and less often in lymphocytes.

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