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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors:
Carmen Solcan
,
Geta Pavel
,
Viorel Floristean
,
Ioan Chiriac
,
Bogdan Şlencu
, and
Gheorghe Solcan

The immunotoxic effect of ochratoxin A (OTA) on the intestinal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue and its cytotoxic action on the intestinal epithelium were studied in broiler chickens experimentally treated with the toxin. From the 7th day of life, 80 male broiler chickens (Ross 308) were randomly divided into four groups of 20 birds each. The three experimental groups (E1-3) were treated with OTA for 28 days (E1: 50 μg/kg body weight [bw]/day; E2: 20 μg/kg bw/day; E3: 1 μg/kg bw/day) and the fourth group served as control. Histological examination of the intestinal mucosa and immunohistochemical staining for identification of CD4+, CD8+, TCR1 and TCR2 lymphocytes in the duodenum, jejunum and ileocaecal junction were performed, and CD4+/CD8+ and TCR1/TCR2 ratios were calculated. OTA toxicity resulted in decreased body weight gain, poorer feed conversion ratio, lower leukocyte and lymphocyte count, and altered intestinal mucosa architecture. After 14 days of exposure to OTA, immunohistochemistry showed a significant reduction of the lymphocyte population in the intestinal epithelium and the lamina propria. After 28 days of exposure, an increase in the CD4+ and CD8+ values in both the duodenum and jejunum of chickens in Groups E1 and E2 was observed, but the TCR1 and TCR2 lymphocyte counts showed a significant reduction. No significant changes were observed in Group E3. The results indicate that OTA induced a decrease in leukocyte and lymphocyte counts and was cytotoxic to the intestinal epithelium and the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue, altering the intestinal barrier and increasing susceptibility to various associated diseases.

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The aim of this study was to test nectin-4 by immunohistochemistry as a potential biomarker in enzootic nasal adenocarcinoma (ENA) of goats. Twentyfour archival ENA case samples [from 14 male and 10 female hair goats (Capra hircus)] were used. The samples were stained with haematoxylin and eosin (HE). Nectin-4 expression was studied by immunohistochemistry. By microscopy, tubular, papillary, and mixed patterns of ENA were diagnosed in the cases. Immunohistochemically, the tumours showed moderate nectin-4 expression (++) in 14 cases (58.3%), strong expression (+++) in five cases (20.8%), and weak expression (+) in three cases (12.5%), while two cases (8.3%) were negative. Normal nasal tissues were not stained with nectin-4. The results suggest that nectin-4 may be used as a valuable biomarker of ENA.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors:
Csaba Jakab
,
Attila Szász
,
Janina Kulka
,
Ferenc Baska
,
Miklós Rusvai
,
Péter Gálfi
, and
Tibor Németh

This short report describes a case of tricuspid valvular metastasis of canine disseminated histiocytic sarcoma in a 9-year-old female Rottweiler. Immunohistochemically the malignant neoplastic cells gave a strong reaction for vimentin and lysozyme, and showed negativity for serotonin, CD3, CD79a and cytokeratin. The intratumoural microvessels were detected by immunohistochemistry using CD31 and claudin-5. This appears to be the first report of a valvular metastasis of canine malignant histiocytosis.

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The aim of experiments was to characterize the neurons of the autonomic chain that innervates the nipple and the mammary gland of lactating rats using retrograde transynaptic virus labeling and neurotransmitter and neuropeptide immunohistochemistry. Two days after injection of green fluorescence protein labeled virus in two nipples and underlying mammary glands, labeling was observed in the ipsilateral paravertebral sympathetic trunk and the lateral horn. Three days after inoculation the labeling appeared in the brain stem and the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus. Above the spinal cord the labeling was bilateral. A subpopulation of virus labeled cells in the paraventricular nuclei synthesized oxytocin. Labeled neurons in the lateral horn showed cholinergic immunoreactivity. These cholinergic neurons innervated the paravertebral ganglia where the virus labeled neurons were partially noradrenergic. The noradrenergic fibers in the mammary gland innervate the smooth muscle wall of vessels, but not the mammary gland in rats. The neurons in the lateral horn receive afferents from the brain stem, and paraventricular nucleus and these afferents are noradrenergic and oxytocinergic. New findings in our work: Some oxytocinergic fibers may descend to the neurons of the lateral horn which innervate noradrenergic neurons in the paravertebral sympathetic trunk, and in turn these noradrenergic neurons reach the vessels of the mammary gland.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors:
Tais Meziara Wilson
,
Mizael Machado
,
Davi Emanuel Ribeiro De Sousa
,
Tainã Braúna
,
Rafael Torres Neto
,
Renée Laufer-Amorim
,
Matias Pablo Juan Szabó
, and
Marcio Botelho De Castro

At clinical examination, a 5-year-old male domestic short-haired cat exhibited painful swelling and erythema of the pinnae of both ears. Microscopically, the lesions on both pinnae were composed of diffuse granulomatous chondritis with degeneration and necrosis of the pinnal cartilage. Numerous mast cells were also observed within and surrounding the inflammatory lesion. Immunohistochemistry showed a mixed inflammatory infiltrate characterised by the predominance of macrophages (CD68+, MAC 387+ and Lysozyme+), T lymphocytes (CD3+), some B lymphocytes (CD79α+) and neutrophils. Immunopathological characterisation of the lesion showed a granulomatous inflammation profile and suggests that the morphological changes and immunopathogenesis of auricular chondritis in cats presents a similarity with relapsing polychondritis in humans.

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Distribution of the potassium channel of Kv4.3 type was investigated in the central nervous system (CNS) of Helix pomatia by immunohistochemistry. Immunopositive neurons were found widely distributed in the CNS, present mostly in smaller groups in the different central ganglia but not in the visceral ganglion. Labeled fibers were characteristic for not only the neuropils of all ganglia but also the connective tissue sheath around the CNS and the aorta wall were richly innervated. Western blot analysis revealed a clear identity with the mammalian Kv4.3 subunit, suggesting an evolutionary conserved structure of this channel type. Our preliminary results provide a steady basis for further experiments aiming partly at the identification of other potassium channel types and partly the ultrastructural localization of Kv4.3.

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The applicability of an anti- Mycobacterium bovis (BCG) antibody-based immunohistochemistry (IHC) procedure was investigated using everyday veterinary pathological samples collected from 13 different animal species. Fifty-one formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue samples were selected for this study. Forty, 4 and 7 tissue samples contained different species of bacteria, fungi and protozoa, respectively. Three serial sections were prepared in each case. Two sections were pre-treated with enzyme and heat, respectively, while the last section was not pre-treated. In seven cases the sensitivity of histochemical staining (HSM), IHC and bacteriological culture were compared. Heating of the sections in a microwave oven was the most effective method in the case of almost all pathogens used. Strong or moderate positive reactions were observed for 26 bacterial species, all fungal and 2 protozoal species, while weak reactions occurred for 2 bacterial and 1 protozoal species. Only 4 protozoal and 12 bacterial species, including Leptospira and all the five Mycoplasma species examined, showed no reaction in this test. IHC had almost the same sensitivity as bacteriological culture and was more sensitive than HSM. The IHC method presented here should be preferred to HSM as a general screening tool in cases where pathological lesions suspicious for infections are evident and no microorganism can be cultured in vitro or only formalin-fixed tissue samples are available for the laboratory examination.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors:
Slawomir Gonkowski
,
Piotr Burliński
,
Cezary Skobowiat
,
Mariusz Majewski
,
Marcin Arciszewski
,
Piotr Radziszewski
, and
Jarosław Całka

The aim of the present study was to investigate the number of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript-like immunoreactive (CART-LI) nerve structures in the large intestine of juvenile pigs. The distribution pattern of CART-LI structures was studied by immunohistochemistry in the circular muscle layer, myenteric (MP), outer submucous (OSP) and inner submucous plexus (ISP) as well as in the mucosal layer of six regions of the large bowel: caecum, centripetal and centrifugal turns of the proximal colon, transverse colon, descending colon and rectum. CART-LI neural structures were observed in all gut fragments studied. CART-LI nerve fibres were numerous within the circular muscle layer and in the MP of all the regions studied, while they were moderate or few in number in other layers of the intestinal wall. The numbers of CART-LI neurons within the MP amounted to 2.02% in the caecum to 7.92% in the rectum, within the OSP from 2.73% in the centrifugal turns of the proximal colon to 5.70% in the rectum, and within the ISP from 2.23% in the transverse colon to 5.32% in the centrifugal turns of the proximal colon. The present study reports for the first time a detailed description of the CART distribution pattern within the enteric nervous system (ENS) of the porcine large intestine.

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The procerebrum of stylommatophoran snails produces nitric oxide (NO)-modulated oscillatory local field potentials which are considered the basis of olfactory information processing. Although the function of NO is well characterized in the PC, the identification and distribution of NO synthase (NOS) has not known completely. In the present study, applying a mammalian anti-NOS antibody, a 170 kDa molecular weight NOS-like protein was demonstrated in the procerebrum homogenate of Helix pomatia. NOS-like immunolabeling of the globuli cells, the internal and terminal neuropils displayed an identical distribution compared to that of NADPH-diaphorase reactive material, confirming the specificity of immunohistochemistry. The detailed characteristics of the immunostaining (different intensity of the neural perikarya, a gradual appearance in the terminal neuropil and in the axon bundles of the tentacular nerve, as well as an intense, homogeneous distribution of NOS-like immunoreactivity in the internal neuropil) suggest that NOS is expressed constitutively, maintaining a high level of the enzyme in neuropil areas. NOS accumulation in the internal neuropil suggests that NO plays an important role in delivering olfactory signals extrinsic to the procerebrum, and integrating them with other sensory modalities, respectively. Our results are the first, demonstrating unequivocally the presence of NOS and resolving its differential distribution in the Helix procerebrum.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors:
Igor Ribeiro Dos Santos
,
Daniel Ricardo Rissi
,
Betânia Pereira Borges
,
Guilherme Reis Blume
, and
Fabiano José Ferreira De Sant’Ana

, associated with villous fusion. Haematoxylin and eosin (HE), ×20. (C) Positive cytoplasmic labelling of neoplastic lymphocytes in all layers of the small intestine. Immunohistochemistry (IHC), CD3, ×100. (D) Detail of the neoplastic lymphocytes immunolabelled

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