A pot experiment was conducted at Sirinka Agricultural Research Center, Ethiopia in 1999 to evaluate the level of resistance of local and improved sorghum varieties to Strigahermonthica (Del.) Benth. The results indicate that the three exotic varieties, which were bred for striga resistance (P-9401, P-9403 and SRN-39), and two local varieties (Ayefere- Asfachew and Wotere) supported significantly lower numbers of emerged striga compared to the susceptible checks. Striga dry biomass weight and shoot height were also significantly lower for these varieties. Plant height, dry shoot weight and dry root weight were also least affected by striga infestation in these varieties. Most of the local sorghum varieties, which were praised for their resistance, had disappointing infestation levels.
Authors:D.A. Urias-Lugo, J.B. Heredia, J.B. Valdez-Torres, M.D. Muy-Rangel, S.O. Serna-Saldivar, and S. García-Lara
Five elite blue maize hybrids and two blue maize landraces were evaluated for various quality characteristics. Hybrids showed physical characteristics demanded by dry-millers and tortilla processors: above 290 g in one hundred-kernel weight test, higher test weight (76.1–78.5 kg hl−1) and lower flotation index (22–61%). Hybrid maize 613 × 27 (9.9%) and 611 × 8 (9.5%) contained the highest protein. Potassium, magnesium, manganese and zinc contents of hybrid maize were higher than landraces by 15, 30, 55 and 41%, respectively. Nutrimental profile showed linoleic acid contents above 50% in 503 × 67, 613 × 27 and 611 × 8 hybrid samples. Lysine levels of landraces and hybrids 503 × 67 (33.9 g kg−1 protein) and 631 × 27 (31.7 g kg−1 protein) were higher than reported for regular white corn (27 g kg−1 protein), as well as the highest tryptophan levels for Chalqueno (6.0 g kg−1 protein) and hybrid 503 × 67 (6.9 g kg−1 protein). Highest protein quality based on its digestibility was found in hybrid 503 × 67. Results indicated that elite blue maize hybrids could be an important source of nutrimental compounds with potential for functional food industries.
Authors:X. Li, X. Xu, X. Yang, X. Li, W. Liu, A. Gao, and L. Li
Denčić, S., Kastori, R., Kobiljski, B., Duggan, B. 2000. Evaluation of grain yield and its components in wheat cultivars and landraces under near optimal and drought conditions. Euphytica 113 :43–52.
Authors:G. Mangini, D. Nigro, B. Margiotta, P. De Vita, A. Gadaleta, R. Simeone, and A. Blanco
During the last century wheat landraces were replaced by modern wheat cultivars leading to a gradual process of genetic erosion. Landraces genotyping and phenotyping are strategically useful, as they could broaden the genetic base of modern cultivars. In this research, we explored Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) markers diversity in a collection of common and durum wheats, including both landraces and Italian elite cultivars. A panel of 6,872 SNP markers was used to analyze the genetic variability among the accessions, using both the Principal Components Analysis (PCA) and the Neighbour Joining clustering method. PCA analysis separated common wheat accessions from durum ones, and allowed to group separately durum landraces from durum elite cultivars. The Neighbour joining clustering validated PCA results, and moreover, separated common wheat landraces from common elite cultivars. The clustering results demonstrated that Italian durum landraces were poorly exploited in modern breeding programs. Combining cluster results with heterozygosity levels observed, it was possible to clarify synonymy and homonymy cases identified for Bianchetta, Risciola, Saragolla, Timilia and Dauno III accessions. The SNP panel was also used to detect the minimum number of markers to discriminate the studied accessions. A set of 33 SNPs were found to be highly informative and used for a molecular barcode, which could be useful for cultivar identification and for the traceability of wheat end-products.