Authors:Liming Liang, Ronald Rousseau, and Fei Shi
The rhythm of science may be compared to the rhythm of music. The R-indicator studied in this article is a complex indicator, trying to reflect part of this rhythm. The R-indicator interweaves publication and citation data over a long period. In this way R-sequences can be used to describe the evolutionary rhythm of science considered in a novel way. As an example the R-sequence of the journal Science from 1945 on is calculated.
Authors:Liming Liang, Junwan Liu, and Ronald Rousseau
Studying three Chinese major universities of different type, this article attempts to validate earlier results related to
authors' name order in papers co-authored by graduate candidates and their supervisors. Candidates for the doctoral degree
as well as the master's degree are considered. Defining the g-ratio as the fraction of co-authored publications where the
graduate student's name precedes that of the supervisor's we obtain the following results. 1) Generally, master's level g-ratios
are smaller than the corresponding doctoral level g-ratios. 2) The three doctoral g-ratio time series have a common characteristic:
they tend to a limiting target value of somewhat more than 80%. The master's time series of the three universities extend
themselves in parallel with the doctoral time series. 3) The g-ratio of collaborative papers related to the dissertation is
higher than the g-ratio of collaborative papers not related to the dissertation. This is true on the doctoral level as well
as on the master's level. 4) Different disciplines have different g-ratios, representing disciplinary customs in graduate
candidate-supervisor collaboration, the highest g-ratio in the doctoral case occurring in biology (except for Tsinghua University
that does not offer courses in biology). 5) There exist only small differences between the g-ratios of different kinds of
universities. 6) In recent years, the same candidate-supervisor collaboration patterns exist in international publications
as in domestic ones. The fact that the doctoral g-ratios of all three universities are as high as 80% reflects a universal
regularity in the structure of scientific collaboration between doctoral candidates and their supervisors in China.
Authors:Lin Zhang, Frizo Janssens, Liming Liang, and Wolfgang Glänzel
The objective of this study is to use a clustering algorithm based on journal cross-citation to validate and to improve the
journal-based subject classification schemes. The cognitive structure based on the clustering is visualized by the journal
cross-citation network and three kinds of representative journals in each cluster among the communication network have been
detected and analyzed. As an existing reference system the 15-field subject classification by Glänzel and Schubert (Scientometrics
56:55–73, <cite>2003</cite>) has been compared with the clustering structure.
Authors:Liming Liang, Frank Havemann, Michael Heinz, and Roland Wagner-Döbler
To compare science growth of different countries is both, of theoretical and of pragmatic interest. Using methods for the
analysis of complex growth processes introduced by H. E. Stanley and others, we exhibit quantitative features of Chinese science
growth from 1986 to 1999 and compare them with corresponding features of western countries. Patterns of growth dynamics of
Chinese universities publication output do not differ significantly from those found in the case of western countries. The
same is valid for Chinese journals when compared to international journals. In nearly all cases the size distribution of output
over universities or journals is near to a lognormal one, the growth rate distribution is Laplace-like, and the standard deviations
of the corresponding conditional distributions with regard to size decay according to a power law. This means that regarding
some structural-dynamical properties China's recent science system cannot be distinguished from a western one - despite different
prehistory and different political and economic environment.
Authors:Liming Liang, Hildrun Kretschmer, Yongzheng Guo, and Donald deB. Beaver
This paper is a scientometric study of the age structure of scientific collaboration in Chinese computer science. Analysis
reveals some special age structures in scientific collaboration in Chinese computer science. Most collaborations are composed
of scientists younger than thirty-six (Younger) or older than fifty (Elder). For two-dimensional collaboration formed by first
and second authors, Younger-Elder and Younger-Younger are the predominant age structures. For three-dimensional collaboration
formed by first, second and third authors, Younger-Younger-Elder and Younger-Younger-Younger are the most important age structures.
Collaboration between two authors older than 38 amounts to only 6.4 percent of all two-person collaborations. Collaboration
between two middle-aged scientists is seldom seen.
Why do such types of age structure in Chinese computer science exist? We suggest a tentative explanation based on analyses
of the age composition of all authors, the age distributions of the authors in different ranks, and the name-ordering of authors
in articles written by professors and their students.
Authors:Liang Li-Ming, Zhao Hong-Zhou, Wang Yuan, and Wu Yi-Shan
A statistical analysis is made of two data sets and it is found that the distribution of major scientific and technological achievements in terms of the age of those achievement makers is Weibull distribution. Pearson'sx2 test results are satisfactory. This finding holds for different centuries, different nations and different disciplines.
Authors:Sujin Choi, Ji-young Park, and Han Woo Park
organizers. The lime square and red circle nodes represent followers and members, respectively. The size of the node relates to the number of replies and retweets.
Two-mode network visualization by group