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The dynamic and antibiotic resistance of faecal coliforms, faecal streptococci and Pseudomonas aeruginosa , isolated by standard membrane filtration methods from suburban and rural untreated groundwater supplies, were scrutinized in this study. The annual average densities of these bacteria were respectively 1891 colony forming units (c.f.u.)/100 mL, 1246 c.f.u./100 mL and 206 c.f.u./100 mL. The total occurrence of faecal coliforms and faecal streptococci during the period of study was 94%. Detectable P. aeruginosa was present in 88% of samples. A total of 320 faecal coliforms, 338 faecal streptococci and 208 P. aeruginosa strains, were examined for their resistance to eighteen antibiotics. The overall resistance (resistance to at least one antibiotic) of these bacteria was 100%. The multiresistance (resistance to at least two antibiotics) of faecal coliforms and faecal streptococci was 94%, whereas 100% of P. aeruginosa strains were multiresistant. The monoresistance (resistance to one antibiotic) of faecal coliforms and faecal streptococci strains was 5%, but the monoresistance was not expressed among P. aeruginosa strains. Faecal coliforms were most commonly resistant towards sulfamethoxazole (91%), cephalothin (88%) and ampicillin (84%). Faecal streptococci isolates were resistant to polymyxin (87%), to sulfamethoxazole (86%) and to nalidixic acid (85%). The highest prevalence of resistance was noted among P. aeruginosa isolates. More than 90% of these strains were resistant to cephalothin (95%), cephotaxim (93%) and polymyxin (92%). The occurrence of faecal pollution bacteria and the presence of high levels of multiple antibiotic resistant bacteria in rural and suburban groundwaters used by local populations, without previous treatment, may have important public health implications.

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Progress in Agricultural Engineering Sciences
Authors: Cecilia Hodúr, Szabolcs Kertész, József Csanádi, Gábor Szabó, and Zsuzsanna László

65 108 Molina, J.M., Vatai, Gy., Fogarassy, E., Bekassy-Molnar E. (2008) Application of membrane Filtration to wastewater desalination. Progress in Agricultural Engineering Sciences 4

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors: Zs. Molnár, Sz. Bánvölgyi, Á. Kozák, I. Kiss, E. Békássy-Molnár, and Gy. Vatai

Hea, Y., Ji, Z. & Li, S. (2007): Effective clarification of apple juice using membrane filtration without enzyme and pasteurization pretreatment. Sep. Purif. Tech. , 57 , 366–373. Li S

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132 133 Yoshkawa, Y., Matsumoto, K. & Ohki J. (1994): Membrane filtration characteristics of yeast suspension extracted with solution of ethanol in water. Nippon Nogeikagaku

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Progress in Agricultural Engineering Sciences
Authors: Péter Bor, József Csanádi, Gábor Veréb, Sándor Beszédes, Zita Šereš, Zsuzsanna László, Cecilia Hodúr, and Szabolcs Kertész

, L. H. , Zhu , Z. , Wan , Y. , Jaffrin , M. Y. ( 2012 ) Treatment of dairy effluent by shear-enhanced membrane filtration: The role of foulants . Separation and Purification Technology , 96 : 194 – 203

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Microbial 1996 62 3997 4002 Grant, M. A.: A new membrane filtration medium for simultaneous

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227 232 Takata, K., Yamamoto, K., Brian, R., Watanabe, Y. (1998) Removal of humic substances with vibratory shear-enhanced processing membranes filtration. Desalination 117

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Progress in Agricultural Engineering Sciences
Authors: Balázs Lemmer, Szabolcs Kertész, Gábor Keszthelyi-Szabó, Kerime Özel, and Cecilia Hodúr

transportation fuels . Annu. Rev. Energy , 12 : 47 – 80 . Molina , J. , Vatai, Gy. , Fogarassy , E. , Bekassy-Molnar E. ( 2008 ) Application of membrane filtration to wastewater

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of Budapest , 2013 . [15] Kiss Zs. L. Effect of pre-treatment on filtration parameters during membrane filtration of

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): Effective clarification of apple juice using membrane filtration without enzyme and pasteurization pretreatment. Sep. Purif. Technol. , 57 , 366–373. Li S. Effective clarification of

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