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Physician and Sportsmedicine . J. C. Giardino M. E. Procidano 2012 Muscle dysmorphia

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means and standard deviations, r values or percentages for the relevant variables. We did not include studies that only included muscle dysmorphia as an outcome variable or only examined attitudes towards exercise and fitness or fitness orientation

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Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Ferenc Túry
,
Pál Szabó
,
Szilvia Dukay-Szabó
,
Irena Szumska
,
Dávid Simon
, and
Günther Rathner

countries. This makes surveys taken outside Western countries all the more interesting. An indication of the rapid changes is the appearance of new presentations of EDs and body image disorders every five to ten years (such as muscle dysmorphia, orthorexia

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A testdiszmorfiás zavar pszichológiai vonatkozásai

Psychological aspects of body dysmorphic disorder

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors:
Beáta Szászi
and
Pál Szabó

, H. ( 2022 ). Body dysmorphic disorder, muscle dysmorphia, weight and shape dissatisfaction and the use of appearance-enhancing drugs in the military: A systematic review . British Medical Journal Military Health , e002135 . Advance online

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. , & Griffiths , M. D. ( 2015 ). Muscle dysmorphia: Could it be classified as an addiction to body image? Journal of Behavioral Addictions , 4 ( 1 ), 1 – 5 . https://doi.org/10.1556/JBA.3.2014.001 . 10.1556/JBA.3.2014.001 Freimuth , M. ( 2008

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Manuel Alcaraz-Ibáñez
,
Adrian Paterna
,
Álvaro Sicilia
, and
Mark D. Griffiths

. ( 2012 ). Muscle dysmorphia symptomatology: A cross-cultural study in Mexico and the United States . International Journal of Men’s Health , 11 , 83 – 103 . https://doi.org/10.3149/jmh.1101.83 . 10.3149/jmh.1101.83 Godier , L. R. ( 2015

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Abstract

Background and aims

Problematic exercise (PE) has mainly been assessed with self-report instruments. However, summarized evidence on the reliability of the scores derived from such instruments has yet to be provided. The present study reports a reliability generalization meta-analysis of six well-known self-report measures of PE (Commitment to Exercise Scale, Compulsive Exercise Test, Exercise Addiction Inventory, Exercise Dependence Questionnaire, Exercise Dependence Scale, and Obligatory Exercise Questionnaire).

Methods

Pooled effect sizes were computed using a random-effect model employing a restricted maximum likelihood estimation method. Univariable and multivariable meta-regressions analyses were employed for testing moderator variables.

Results

Data retrieved from 255 studies (741 independent samples, N = 254,174) identified three main groups of findings: (i) pooled alpha values that, ranging from 0.768 to 0.930 for global scores and from 0.615 to 0.907 for subscale scores, were found to be sensitive to sociodemographic and methodological characteristics; (ii) reliability induction rates of 47.58%; and (iii) the virtually non-existent testing of the assumptions required for the proper applicability of alpha. Data unavailability prevented the provision of summarized reliability estimates in terms of temporal stability.

Discussion

These findings highlight the need to improve reliability reporting of the scores of self-reported instruments of PE in primary studies. This implies providing both prior justification for the appropriateness of the index employed and reliability data for all the subpopulation of interest. The values presented could be used as a reference both for comparisons with those obtained in future primary studies and for correcting measurement-related artefacts in quantitative meta-analytic research concerning PE.

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