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Bartness, T. J., Powers, J. B., Hastinas, M. (1993) The timed infusion paradism for melatonin delivery: What has it taught us about the melatonin signal, its reception, and the photoperiodic control of seasonal responses? J. Pineal Res. 15 , 161

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., Zádori, A., Frank, C. L., Lukáts, Á., Röhlich, P., Szél, Á., Dávid, C. (2002) Nonvisual photoreceptors of the deep brain, pineal organs and retina. Histol. Histopathol (in press). Nonvisual photoreceptors of the deep brain

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors:
Marie Molnárová
,
Bernadetta Pástorová
,
Angela Staníková
,
J. Halagan
, and
J. Buleca

The influence of hormonal superovulatory preparations Folistiman (450 IU FSH, Spofa, Prague) and serum gonadotropin (1500 IU PMSG, Spofa, Prague) on monoamine oxidase (MAO), the degradative enzyme of catecholamines, was investigated in some areas of the brain regulating reproductive functions (area preoptica of the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and pineal gland) in ewes with synchronized oestrus (20 mg chlorsuperlutin) during the oestrous period using a radiochemical method. After intramuscular administration of 1500 IU PMSG, marked increase of MAO activity was found in the area preoptica (p < 0.05) and in the pituitary gland (p < 0.01) in comparison with the control group. No change occurred in MAO activity after ovarian stimulation with FSH. Administration of the above superovulatory preparations failed to induce MAO activity in the pineal gland of sheep.

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In order to examine the effect of exogenous melatonin on selected biochemical variables of the blood in ruminants, dairy cows were given the pineal gland hormone in the dose of 0.1 mg/kg body weight. One and four hours after melatonin administration blood samples were collected from the cows in the control and the treated group in order to determine the levels of glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids, as well as the activities of alanine and aspartate aminotransferase. The pineal gland hormone caused a significant increase in the levels of total cholesterol and triglycerides, slight increases in glucose and insulin levels, and a significant decrease in the concentration of free fatty acids. Melatonin did not exert an effect on the activity of liver enzymes.

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. (2006) Intermittent and rhythmic exposure to melatonin in primary cultured adipocytes enhances the insulin and dexamethasone effects on leptin expression. J. Pineal. Res. 41 , 28–34. Lima F. B

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altered plasma volume and sodium concentrations following pinealectomy in the rat. J. Pineal Res. 20 , 211–216. Demaine C. Release of vasopressin in response to altered plasma

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The role of immune system is to protect the organism from the not built-in program-like alterations inside and against the agents penetrating from outside (bacteria, viruses, and protozoa). These functions were developed and formed during the evolution. Considering these functions, the immune system promotes the lengthening of lifespan and helps longevity. However, some immune functions have been conveyed by men to medical tools (e.g., pharmaceuticals, antibiotics, and prevention), especially in our modern age, which help the struggle against microbes, but evolutionarily weaken the immune system. Aging is a gradual slow attrition by autoimmunity, directed by the thymus and regulated by the central nervous system and pineal gland. Considering this, thymus could be a pacemaker of aging. The remodeling of the immune system, which can be observed in elderly people and centenarians, is probably not a cause of aging, but a consequence of it, which helps to suit immunity to the requirements. Oxidative stress also helps the attrition of the immune cells and antioxidants help to prolong lifespan. There are gender differences in the aging of the immune system as well as in the longevity. There is an advantage for women in both cases. This can be explained by hormonal differences (estrogens positively influences both processes); however, social factors are also not excluded. The endocrine disruptor chemicals act similar to estrogens, like stimulating or suppressing immunity and provoking autoimmunity; however, their role in longevity is controversial. There are some drugs (rapamycin, metformin, and selegiline) and antioxidants (as vitamins C and E) that prolong lifespan and also improve immunity. It is difficult to declare that longevity is exclusively dependent on the state of the immune system; however, there is a parallelism between the state of immune system and lifespan. It seems likely that there is not a real decline of immunity during aging, but there is a remodeling of the system according to the claims of senescence. This is manifested in the remaining (sometimes stronger) function of memory cells in contrast to the production and number of the new antigen-reactive naive T-cells.

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., Fernandez-Santos, J. M., Martin-Lacave, I., Osuna, C. (2005) Dual effect of melatonin as proinflammatory and antioxidant in collagen-induced arthritis in rats. J. Pineal Res. 38 , 93–99. Osuna C

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188 Mocchegiani, E., Bulian, D., Santarelli, L., Tibaldi, A., Muzzioli, M., Pierpaoli, W., Fabris, N. (1994) The immuno-reconstituting effect of melatonin or pineal grafting and its relation

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Ebadi, M., Govitrapong, P., Phansuwan-Pujito, P., Nelson, F., Reiter, R. J. (1998) Pineal opioid receptors and analgesic action of melatonin. J. Pineal Res. 24 , 193–200. Reiter R. J

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