Authors:Chia-Yuan Wen, Can-Yong Jhu, Yih-Wen Wang, Chung-Cheng Chiang, and Chi-Min Shu
Fauske & Associates, LLC [ 22 ]. The test data of a sample such as self-heating rate; control reaction of temperature, pressure, and time and reaching maximum heating temperature and pressure; and other related data were obtained by VSP2. In addition, the
Authors:Hung-Cheng Chou, Sheng-Hung Wu, Chung-Cheng Chiang, Jao-Jia Horng, Jen-Hao Chi, and Chi-Min Shu
temperature ( T 0 ), time to maximum rate ( TMR ), maximum temperature ( T max ), maximum pressure ( P max ), Δ H d , activation energy ( E a ), maximum self-heating rate ((d T d t −1 ) max ), and maximum pressure rise rate ((d P d t −1 ) max ) can be
Authors:Lung-Chang Tsai, Jyun-Wei Chen, Hung-Yi Hou, Shang-Hao Liu, and Chi-Min Shu
VSP2, which is a PC-governed adiabatic calorimeter system manufactured by Fauske and Associates, LLC (FAI) [ 17 ], was used to acquire thermokinetic and thermal hazard data, such as self-heating rate ((d T d t −1 ) max ), and
Authors:A. Miyake, M. Wakakura, T. Uchida, and A. Ushikubo
November 2003 an explosion occurred at a shopping center in a room where organic
waste including raw garbage is treated. Eleven people were injured including
firefighters on duty and the explosion destroyed the walls of the room. To
obtain a better understanding of self-heating and gas evolution processes
thermal analysis, gas products analysis, spontaneous ignition test and bacterial
analysis were carried out. Based on the experimental results accident scenario
was investigated and it was considered that the flammable gases generated
during a self-heating and combustion in a fermentation tank caused the gas
Composting technologies rely on standard methods for quality determination. The maturity of a compost is assayed by self-heating experiments in Dewar-vessels. The resulting maximum temperature is classified on a five-level scale. This study demonstrated systematic errors that might occur when assays are performed in Dewars of different size. The vessels were characterized as heat conduction calorimeters and the processes of biochemical decomposition and heat generation and autothermic effects (temperature) were evaluated quantitatively.
Authors:N. Eckardt, H. Flammersheim, and H. Cammenga
Contrary to the situation in the field of temperature, heat and heat flow rate calibration, so far no generally accepted and easily practicable chemical reaction exists with regard to a kinetic evaluation. A possible reaction would be the well-known first-order cis-trans isomerization of subcooled liquid azobenzene. Surprisingly, the evaluation of measurements performed with a power compensated calorimeter yields activation parameters, which are dependent on the heating rate. The desmearing of the curves does not produce any improvements. However, constant activation parameters are obtained, if a small self-heating of the sample during the exothermic reaction is taken into account.
Organic peroxides (OPs) have caused many momentous explosions and runaway reactions, resulting from thermal instability, chemical
pollutants, and even mechanical shock. In Taiwan, dicumyl peroxide (DCPO), due to its unstable reactive nature, has caused
two thermal explosions and runaway reaction incidents in the manufacturing process. To evaluate thermal hazards of DCPO in
a batch reactor, we studied thermokinetic parameters, such as heat of decomposition (†Hd), exothermic onset temperature (T0), maximum temperature rise ((dT/dt)max), maximum pressure rise ((dP/dt)max), self-heating rate (dT/dt), etc., via differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and vent sizing package 2 (VSP2).
The most decisive phenomena arising either from specific DTA measurements (heat inertia, temperature deviation, self-heating) or from non-isothermal kinetic treatment (overlapping models, characteristics determinations) are discussed.
Authors:A. Miyake, S. Ando, T. Ogawa, and Y. Iizuka
Summary The influence of the atmospheric conditions such as the oxygen concentration and its pressure on the spontaneous ignition behaviour of activated carbon was investigated with high pressure DSC (HP-DSC), TG-DTA and SIT (spontaneous ignition test). The onset temperature with HP-DSC lowered with the increase of the oxygen concentration and the onset temperature could be predicted with the oxygen concentration. From the adiabatic self-heating profiles observed by SIT the onset temperature lowered with the increase of the oxygen concentration and the activation energy of induction period of exothermic reaction was determined as 28~39 kJ mol-1.
In petrochemistry, dicumyl peroxide (DCPO) is used in various resins for improving physical properties, which was produced
by cumene hydroperoxide (CHP) with oxidization reaction, redox reaction, and dehydration reaction. The reactant, CHP, is a
typical organic hydroperoxide and has been intrinsically unstable and reactive due to its bivalent -O-O- structure which can
be broken readily with bond-dissociation energy. This sequence on sensitive study aimed at the thermal hazard evaluation for
the reactive and incompatible characteristics of CHP mixed with various inorganic alkaline solutions. Differential scanning
calorimetry (DSC) and vent sizing package 2 (VSP2) were used to analyze the thermal hazards and runaway reaction of redox
system, such as decomposition of CHP in cumene solution and CHP react with inorganic alkaline solutions, exothermic onset
temperature, peak power, heat of decomposition of dynamic scanning tests, adiabatic self-heating rate, pressure rise rate,
maximum temperature, maximum pressure of reaction system, etc. The results of the tests have proven helpful in establishing
safe handling, storage, transportation, and disposal guidelines.