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In the past decades many papers were published on the nutritional effect and bioactive components of edible mushrooms. The fungi are able to accumulate secondary metabolites, for example, phenolic compounds, polyketides, terpenes and steroids. In case of mushrooms the button mushrooms are preferred in the Eastern-European region. Therefore white and cream type button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) and different A. subrufescens (syn. A. blazei) cultivars were cropped, total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity (FRAP) were measured in two years of experiments. To develop the description method of mushroom products, software-supported profile analysis was applied to characterize them. The aim of the research was to compare the sensory profiles of the samples, and to find those characteristics, they actually differ in.

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Sensory and physicochemical changes of three apple cultivars (‘Golden Delicious’, ‘Idared’ and ‘Gloster’) were monitored during 14 weeks of storage at 6 °C and 70% relative humidity in three following years. The aim was to investigate physicochemical parameters that were best correlated with sensory evaluation of apples during their storage. Sensory quality was assessed using a category point scale and the sensory profile was evaluated using a graphical unstructured scale. Physicochemical changes, such as weight, soluble solids, titratable acidity, and dry matter content, were monitored. All the examined parameters changed during the observed period, with the greatest changes occurring in weight, texture, and taste. There were also differences between the tested cultivars. Statistically significant correlations between sensory and physicochemical data were observed between texture characteristics and weight changes. In case of sweet taste, only a weak correlation between the intensity of sweet flavour and soluble solid content values was found. No statistically significant correlation between the intensity of sour taste and titratable acidity was observed.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
L. Darnay
,
A. Dankovics
,
B. Molnár
,
L. Friedrich
,
Gy. Kenesei
, and
Cs. Balla

Several scientific papers suggest that microbial transglutaminase (mTG) is capable of reducing the salt content of cured and/or heat-treated meat products (ham, frankfurters, meat ball). These scientific results are not widely known in Hungary, and as a result of this, only little experience was gathered in our meat industry. According to this lack of knowledge, our aim was to lower the curing salt to a still microbiological safe level using mTG by frankfurters, one of the most well-known heat treated meat products in Hungary. The observed technofunctional properties suggest to use mTG enzyme preparation at 0.5% concentration. This enzyme dosage can reduce the average 1.8% salt content to 1.6% and it also may contribute to extended shelf life of popular frankfurters. Our sensorial analysis revealed that the panellists have not found a loss in quality between 1.4% and 1.6% salt.

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High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) technology, as a promising alternative of thermal-treatment and chemical preservatives, can be used to produce minimally processed foods. It has the advantage of affecting only non-covalent bonds of macromolecules in foods, and thus preserves nutritional components, taste, and flavour exceptionally well. However, HHP also influences enzymatic reactions of food. Although some of these changes are often beneficial, monitoring the potential effects of high pressure treatments — especially in the field of product and technology development — is essential. The aim of this study was to point out some parameters of high hydrostatic pressure technique (pressure, temperature, build-up time, holding time, number of cycles) that can substantially impact the sensory properties of treated products.

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Sensory profiles of commercial coffee substitutes were determined and their possible interdependences with antioxidant characteristics (FRAP, DPPH, ABTS, and CUPRAC), total polyphenol content, and colour were investigated and compared to coffees. Statistically relevant relations were revealed between certain sensory attributes, colour, and antioxidant capacity.

Sensory attributes show distinct patterns for coffees, their blends, and substitutes, but no significant differences between substitutes from different raw materials were found, except for chicory. Although coffees have generally higher antioxidant capacities than their substitutes, these latter, especially chicory-based products, are also valuable antioxidant sources, as only half of them had significantly lower polyphenol and antioxidant contents when compared to coffee.

Principal component analysis was applied to reveal possible differentiation pattern between samples, based on both their sensory and antioxidant attributes.

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To know and to understand consumers’ preferences is essential in every kind of product development. Consumers make their decision on the basis of numerous factors. In case of mineral waters it is frequently mentioned, that sensory quality is an important attribute of the product. To investigate the real importance of this quality parameter we analysed several mineral waters, which are available on the Hungarian market, with the aim of searching for differences between the products. The applied qualitative method — software-supported profile analysis — is suitable for comparing samples in a much detailed way. Panelists were trained for the use of scales, but they were not selected according to their sensory acuity. This way we simulated the group of consumers — not in a representative, but in a similar way (e.g. average sensory acuity). The aim of the research was to compare the sensory profiles of the samples, and to find those characteristics, in which they actually differ.

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The aim of this study was to make mandarin orange marmalades, in which sucrose is replaced by sweeteners, such as tagatose and isomaltulose, which are non-cariogenic and have a low glycemic index. Analyses of rheology, colour, antioxidant activity, microbiology, and sensory properties were carried out on marmalades on their first day, and after 90, 180, and 360 days of storage. The results showed that marmalades made with healthy sweeteners had a less elastic character and were thinner in consistency than those made with sucrose. Lightness was shown to be highest in mandarin orange marmalades made with tagatose, although colour was stable for 180 days to one year of storage. Tagatose also enhanced the antioxidant activity of these marmalades. All marmalades were microbiologically stable. Finally, marmalades made with tagatose alone scored the highest for global acceptance and intention of buying by consumers.

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18 440 449 ISO (1991): Sensory analysis — Methodology — Method of investigating sensitivity of taste. International Organization for Standardization, Geneva

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
L. Darnay
,
A. Tóth
,
B. Salamon
,
K. Papik
,
G. Oros
,
G. Jónás
,
K. Horti
,
K. Koncz
, and
L. Friedrich

The aim of this study was to show how microbial transglutaminase (mTG) can be used as an effective texture-modifier for two popular Hungarian products: Trappist cheese and frankfurter. In both cases we investigated how components of these products, milkfat in cheese and phosphate in frankfurter, can be substituted by mTG. Therefore, Trappist cheese samples were produced from cow milk of 2.8%, 3.5%, and 5% milk fat. The effect of ripening was evaluated with Texture Profile Analysis (TPA) and sensory evaluation (scoring test, 10 trained panellists). Springiness and cohesiveness values were significantly higher by enzyme-treated semi-hard cheese samples at lower milk fat levels. Sensory evaluation showed that the enzyme-treatment led to higher scores by cheese samples made from cow milk of 3.5% and 5% milk fat. Frankfurter was made with 0.1%, 0.3%, 0.5%, and 0.7% tetrasodium pyrophosphate, and partly enzyme-treated with 0.2% commercial mTG enzyme preparation. Our results showed that mTG is able to significantly improve hardness and crunchiness by frankfurters made with 0.1% phosphate addition. Our sensory evaluation suggests that mTG and phosphate should be applied in combination in order to have a final product with recognisably more homogeneous texture.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
Zs. Molnár
,
Sz. Bánvölgyi
,
Á. Kozák
,
I. Kiss
,
E. Békássy-Molnár
, and
Gy. Vatai

355 360 ISO (1988): Sensory analysis — General guidance for the design of test rooms . No. 8589 Kókai, Z., Heszberger, J., Kollar

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