Authors:Valeria Palermo, Ángel G. Sathicq, Patricia G. Vázquez, Horacio J. Thomas, and Gustavo P. Romanelli
adsorption technique. These catalysts were well characterized by means of 31 P-NMR, UV–visible spectra, FT-IR spectra, thermal analysis, and texturalproperties. Mo, V and Bi amounts were estimated by ICP-AES analysis.
Authors:Anikó Kovács, Lilla Körmendi, and Katalin Badakné Kerti
Introduction Hazelnut spreads are considered as a complex multiphase system, which contain different dispersed solid particulars and a continuous fat phase ( Glicerina et al., 2013 ). The physical attributes such as texturalproperties, viscosity
Authors:Luca Serventi, Joseph Sachleben, and Yael Vodovotz
heating. Microwaved doughs’ exterior remains tough while the interior is hard and chewy [ 2 ]. These and other deleterious texturalproperties have been discussed elsewhere [ 3 – 7 ].
Par-baking the dough prior to reheating improves bread quality
Authors:Alejandro López-Gaona, José De los Reyes, Julia Aguilar, and Nancy Martín
Pt/MCM, Pt/SiO2, Pd/MCM and Pd/SiO2 were prepared and characterized by H2-TPR, TEM, 29Si-CP-MAS-NMR, DRS-UV-Vis and tested in the hydrodechlorination of 1,2-dichloroethane. Differences in the catalytic behavior
were related with textural properties.
Authors:A. Oliveira, G. Marchetti, and M. Carmo Rangel
The effect of the iron precursor on the thermal decomposition of iron oxyhydroxides was studied by DSC, DTA and TG in this
work. Samples were prepared from iron nitrate, iron sulfate and iron chloride and the thermal curves obtained were analyzed
by specific area measurements, X-ray diffraction and Mssbauer spectroscopy. It was found that the iron oxyhydroxide precursors
affect the temperatures of the hematite formation as well as the textural properties of the final hematite producing particles
with different diameters as following: iron sulfate (3.3 nm)<iron nitrate (15 nm)<iron chloride (24 nm).
Authors:B. Dragoi, V. Rakic, E. Dumitriu, and A. Auroux
This work is focused on the gas and liquid-phase adsorption of pollutants: propanol, 2-butanone, phenol and nicotine onto
zeolites (H-BETA, H-ZSM-5, H-MCM-22, and clinoptilolite). Textural properties and origin of zeolites were taken into account
as criteria of adsorbents selection. The aldehyde and the ketone were adsorbed in the gas phase using microcalorimetry linked
to a volumetric line to evaluate adsorption. Adsorptions in water were carried out for phenol and nicotine and the evolved
heats during adsorption were measured by a differential heat flow reaction calorimeter with stirring. Results are discussed
in relation with the pore sizes and various interactions which could occur between the adsorbent and the adsorbate.
Potato wedges were deep, shallow, and par-fried in soybean, sesame, and mustard oils using a laboratory formulated citric acid based antioxidant. The wedges were stored at –18 °C for 10, 20, 30, and 40 days. The quality of the wedges was assessed by subjective method (sensory analysis) and objective method (texture studies). Fuzzy logic was applied as a tool to analyze the linguistic data of subjective evaluation. Objective evaluation was conducted by studies on hardness, shear modulus and shear energy of the wedges. The wedges with highest defuzzified scores (obtained by sensory evaluation) and minimum changes in textural properties (P<0.05) were obtained in par-fried soybean oil (after 40 days storage) and in deep fried sesame and mustard oils (both after 30 days storage). The ranking of fried wedges (in the antioxidant administered oils) based on defuzzified scores after 40 days were: sesame > mustard > soybean (deep fry), mustard > soybean > sesame (shallow fry) and soybean > mustard > sesame (par-fry).
Authors:O. Velasco-González, S. Echavarría-Almeida, A. Pajarito, and E. San Martín-Martinez
The textural properties and hydration capacity of legumes in general and of beans in particular is a subject about which much research has been done. However, at present there is still no practical answer to the “Hard to Shell” and “Hard to Cook” effects. The present investigation studies 14 varieties of recently picked beans that were grown in Mexico. The beans were classified by size using K-means multivariate analysis, and three fractions were obtained for each variety: large (L), medium (M) and small (S). These fractions were evaluated for hardness, water absorption rate and total water absorption. It was found that the small bean fraction of the varieties studied had the lowest hardness values in comparison to the medium and large fractions. This same behaviour was observed for the water absorption rate and total water absorption; the smaller beans absorbed water more quickly and had greater total water absorption than the other fractions. One kind of bean (Pinto Villa) proved to be much harder than the other varieties. The total water absorption increased and hardness decreased for beans with greater ash content, but no correlation was found between these two properties (water absorption and hardness) for protein and fiber content.
The influence of a food-grade long-chain polyphosphate mixture on the growth and survival of spoilage micro-organisms during storage in an experimental processed cheese spread formulation was evaluated. The emulsifying salt was added to the cheese blend at a concentration of 0.5% or 1.0%. A control product was also manufactured, which contained monophosphate instead of polyphosphate as emulsifying salt, with all other ingredients being identical to those in the experimental processed cheese spread. Half of the finished products were subjected to accelerated shelf-life testing at 37 °C for 10 days, whereas the other half of them was stored refrigerated at 4 °C for 120 days. Microbiological analyses (enumeration of viable cell counts, mesophilic sulphite-reducing clostridia, coliforms, yeasts and moulds) and sensory tests were performed at regular intervals. The results showed that polyphosphates had a beneficial effect on the shelf-life of the processed cheese spread tested in that they significantly reduced (P<0.05) the growth or survival rates of spoilage bacteria, especially of mesophilic sulphite-reducing clostridia. Polyphosphates also beneficially influenced the sensory, including textural properties of the experimental processed cheese spread. All the samples containing less than 1% polyphosphate showed signs of butyric blowing significantly earlier (P<0.05), during both accelerated shelf-life tests and regular refrigerated storage, than did the products fortified with 1% polyphosphate. In conclusion, the suitability of the long-chain polyphosphate formulation tested for shelf life extension of processed cheese spreads was demonstrated.