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In the paper I bring together two sets of theories from Narrative Theory and from Retranslation Theory. Links and similarities between the theories are examined under the headings of Essence, Social Conditioning, and Interpretation. A post-structuralist narrative theory is presented, and I extrapolate from this to propose a post-structuralist retranslation theory. After the theoretical discussion I report on the study of a corpus comprising Zola's novel Nana and its five major British (re)translations. The aim is to evaluate how well the theories regarding narrative versions and retranslations hold up with respect to a study of data. A conclusion is reached as to which theories best explain the data. The paper concludes too that bringing together sets of theories from different but related disciplines can be productive in conceptualizing translational phenomena, in this case the phenomenon of retranslation.

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Abstract  

Heterology, or discourse on the Other, encompasses a number of theories dealing with unequal power positions in real life as well as in literature. While feminist theory has made us aware of male authors creating women characters as the Other, and while postcolonial theory reveals alterity in the images of ethnicity, a heterological approach to juvenile literature examines the power balance between the adult author and the implied young audience. This balance is most tangibly manifested in the relationship between the ostensibly adult narrative voice and the child focalizing character and its perception of the fictive world. In other words, the way the adult narrator narrates the child reveals the degree of alterity — yet degree only, since alterity is by definition inevitable in writing for children. Indeed, nowhere else are the power structures as visible as in children’s literature, the refined instrument that has been for centuries used to educate, socialize and oppress a particular social group. In this respect, children’s literature is a unique art and communication form, deliberately created by those in power for the powerless. However, there are other factors besides age-related cognitive discrepancy in childrenh’s literature, which may both enhance and diminish the effect of power imbalance. The present article will look into strategies of alterity in classical and contemporary texts for young readers and consider the synergy of their impact on our perception. Among such strategies, there is the use of specific genres (fantasy, adventure, dystopia), settings (Robinsonnade, Orientalism), and characters (superheroes, anti-heroes, animals, monsters), as well as narrative devices such as voice, focalization and subjectivity. The concepts of norm and normativity are central to heterological studies, and in the case of children’s literature, the focus lies on adult normativity. Contemporary children’s literature has cautiously started subverting its own oppressive function, as it can describe situations in which the established power structures are interrogated. Queer theory and carnival theory prove especially helpful in investigating these issues.

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303 Andreucci, F., E. Biondi, E. Feoli and V. Zuccarello. 2000. Modeling environmental responses of plant associations by fuzzy set theory. Community Ecol. 1

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Theory of solid-state thermal decomposition reactions

Scientific stagnation or chemical catastrophe? An alternative approach appraised and advocated

Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Author:
Andrew K. Galwey

thermal analysis theory, which justifies publication in this Journal. This article confronts the problem that a majority of recent thermal analysis publications cannot be regarded as advancing science because they neither systematically extend ordered

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The supposition of even temperature distribution in the sample mass (‘ingradient’ approach) led to mathematical expressions describing the basic quantitative elements of thermal curves: the transformation duration, the peak height, the initial and final section peak areas and the total area. The simplest expression is that for the total peak area: S=(R2Hd/2k1)1nR1/R, where R, H, d, k1and R1are the radius, the specific thermal effect of sample transformation, the gravimetric density and the outer layer encircling the sample, respectively. For the other quantitative elements, the dependences are far more complicated, depending on the duration and variants of the transformation process.

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: 65 – 80 . Bauer , T. ( 1973 ): Kornai, Janos: Anti-Equilibrium . On Economic Systems Theory and the Task of Research. Book Review. Magyar Tudomány , 18 : 129 – 132

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. Sci. 28 469 – 487 10.1155/S0161171201006640 . [42] Noiri , T. 2008 A unified theory for certain modifications of generalized

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1 Introduction In the later 19th century economic theory was in crisis. When in 1876 the time came to pay tribute to Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations , William Stanley Jevons argued that a focus upon method

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–1982 . Washington, D.C. : Brookings . Dietmar , M. ( 1995 ): Az új növekedéselmélet [The New Growth Theory] . Közgazdasági Szemle, No. , 4 : 387 – 398

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at length (see e.g. Large, Akashi, Jóźwikowska and Rose 2019 ). The premise of this article is to outline a theory which defines non-translation in three ways: first, in terms of systemic resistance to translation; second, as a set of procedures

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