The structures, or architectural forms, can be very various. They are independent both as to text and tune, are inconcievable by lyrics or melody taken separately, have nothing to do with the conscious intention or representation of the singers themselves, and are spontaneously actualized during the singing. Due to such immaterial structuring possibilities, and using only the formal possibilities of the syntagmatic, in Romanian traditional/folk singing a single poetic text can receive 64 formal treatments/versions. For establishing the existence of these architectural variants I have started from observations such as the one belonging to Bartók, who noticed that Romanians had the peculiarity of singing the same verse four times. Other observations spoke about tree times repetitions of each verse, while in someother circumstances verses are repeated just once. If we logically establish all possible forms of sytagmatic repetitions we obtain this sum of 64 variants, which constitute the equally real and virtual being of each and any folk song. These structures and architectures were very important to the old, traditional/peasant aesthetics, and their actualization was essential espetially to ceremonial repertories such as Winter-Solstice-Songs (carols). By giving up devices such as verse repetition and stanzaic refrains, and by shortening the time for performing the epic songs of the peasant carol, what was lost was the immaterial aspect of unconscious constructing, the abysmal pleasure for implied mathematics, was lost one of the essences of the sacred experience, which is -as philosophers put it - 'experiencing the Number'.
Ibn Ḥazm’s (d. 456/1064) Ṭawq al-Ḥamāmah is a sui generis work in the history of mediaeval Arabic culture. Modern scholarship on Ibn Ḥazm’s Ṭawq proceeds along three lines: (1) editing and translating the Ṭawq; (2) explicating the Ṭawq and enquiring into its originality; and (3) looking into the Ṭawq from a comparative perspective. I intend, however, to pursue further the question of the Ṭawq al-Ḥamāmah’s uniqueness, and I would also suggest a new reading of the text based on the exposition of its epistemology. My main proposition is that the Ṭawq al-Ḥamāmah’s idiosyncracies rest on Ibn Ḥazm’s endeavour to advance an epistemic justification of the concept of love. Ibn Ḥazm stresses that writing on love is beyond any fictional narrative. He underlines the idea that entering into the phenomena of love should adhere to al-ḥaqīqah (the truth) and should avoid any kind of flawed explorations. To arrive at an understanding of the work through the angle of al-ḥaqīqah, Ibn Ḥazm further contends that writing on love should be based on three key principles: (i) testimony; (ii) observation; (iii) and knowledge stored in memory. These principles are behind the Ṭawq al-Ḥamāmah’s epistemology that renders any writing on love not merely a fictional narrative but a textual attempt to depict the actual human experience. By deploying the principles of epistemology to investigate love, Ibn Ḥazm’s Ṭawq al-Ḥamāmah not only modifies the existing genre of writing on love and lovers but also considers some aspects of this emotion that had hitherto evaded literary and scholarly treatment. This paper will explore Ibn Ḥazm’s perspective on the ways of writing on love and manifest his epistemological approach in exploring the essence of this emotion as well as its causes and symptoms.
approach to kinship is sadly lacking. There is a vast gulf between the pseudo-mathematical treatment of the too-learned anthropologist and the real facts of savage life. Nor is this merely the feeling of the non-specialist. I must frankly confess that there
of St Stephen , the Death of St Rosalie and the Mary Magdalene inspired by the work of Titian. His paintings are characterised by their light colouring, the decorative treatment of the clothing and the characteristic naive facial traits of the
Authors:Katalin T. Biró, Judit Regenye, Sándor Puszta, and Edit Thamóné Bozsó
Nagytevel határában, a Tevel-hegyen található Magyarország egyetlen, szoros értelemben véve tűzkőnek nevezhető kova nyersanyaga. A felső kréta korú mészkőben, amelyet a község határában egy modern kőbánya tár fel, gyakran 20–30 cm nagyságú tűzkő gumók figyelhetők meg. A környéken több alkalommal gyűjtöttek megmunkált kovaszilánkokat. A területen 2005 és 2008 között feltárásokat végeztünk a Magyar Nemzeti Múzeum és a Veszprém Megyei Múzeumok Igazgatóságának együttműködésében. Az ásatás célja a feltételezhető őskori kovabánya azonosítása és feltárása volt. Összesen 22 bányaobjektumot figyeltünk meg, többségében sekély kitermelő gödröket. A bánya lehetséges lokalizálása, illetve behatárolása céljából két alkalommal geofizikai méréseket is végeztünk. A jelenségek keltezését szórványos kerámialeletek mellett optikai lumineszcens kormeghatározással és a régészeti elterjedési adatok értelmezésével kíséreltük meg.
). 1 His discussion of barbarisms is most interesting for students of Vulgar Latin; although the subject was traditional in Roman grammar, Consentius’ treatment is original and so rich that it can be considered the most extensive account of Vulgar