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Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
M. Włodarczyk-Stasiak
,
A. Mazurek
,
J. Jamroz
,
U. Pankiewicz
, and
R. Kowalski

The aim of the study was to analyse the influence of the type of osmotic substance (sucrose, glucose, xylitol, trehalose, and sorbitol) on the physicochemical properties of freeze-dried fruit (pear and pineapple). Controlling the functional properties of freeze-dried fruit after osmotic dehydration with aqueous solutions at water activity of aw=0.90 is presented. Decrease in the water adsorption index (WAI) was recorded for all dehydrated samples. The largest decrease (for pears and pineapples by 25 and 65%, respectively) was observed in osmoactive solutions containing trehalose. Considerable increase in the FAI was recorded in samples of dehydrated pineapple. In osmoactive trehalose solutions that increase hardly reached 46%, whereas in sorbitol and xylitol its value elevated to 39% and 13%, respectively. Regardless of the osmoactive sweetener applied prior to freeze-drying, an increase in specific surface area (SBET) of dried materials was observed. For dehydrated pears, SBET ranged from 96 to 697 m2 g−1, and for pineapple, from 115 to 938 m2 g−1. Osmotic dehydration before lyophilisation of fruit samples weakened rehydration relative to the control. The dehydration carried out with osmoactive sweeteners, that is, sorbitol, xylitol, and trehalose, allows obtaining a product with good functional properties that can be successfully used for supplementation of dietary products, in particular for diabetics.

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Abstract  

In this paper we compare the solid-state transformations upon room temperature milling of four sugars: lactose, trehalose, mannitol and sorbitol. The two disaccharides (lactose and trehalose) are found to undergo a direct transformation from crystal to glass while the two sugar alcohols (mannitol and sorbitol) are found to undergo polymorphic transformations. The origin of these different behaviors is discussed and ascribed to the relative position of the glass transition temperature (T g) of the amorphous states with respect to the milling temperature. This point was also finely studied through co-milling experiments of lactose and mannitol. These two compounds having their glass transition respectively above and below room temperature the T g of the mixture can be conveniently tuned on either side of the milling temperature by varying the concentrations.

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We studied the effects of storage temperature on the stability of dehydrated POPC (1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine) mixed with sucrose, trehalose, or a sucrose/raffinose mixture. We used DSC to measure the gel-to-fluid phase transition temperature (T m) of POPC after incubation either below or near the glass transition temperature (T g) of the sugars in the mixture. Glass formation by the sugars around fluid-phase POPC led to the lowering ofT m below that of the fully hydrated lipid. Phospholipid phase behavior did not change during storage belowT g. In some samples stored aboveT g, trehalose crystallized completely; in these samples, theT g of POPC increased to that of the partially dehydrated phospholipid. Melting the crystalline sugar re-established its ability to lower POPC'sT m. We conclude that prevention of complete sugar crystallization was important for stability in the dry state, and that storage belowT g conferred long-term stability to the dehydrated sugar-lipid mixtures.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
A. Lončarić
,
A. Pichler
,
N. Rašić
,
I. Vukoja
,
A. Leventić
, and
M. Kopjar

Nowadays, people are focusing on antioxidant-rich food due to its beneficial effect on health. Thus, the goal of this study was to investigate the interactions between catechin, quercetin, and gallic acid in the presence of sugars (sucrose and trehalose) in complex food matrix such as pomegranate juice. Antioxidant activity (AOA) was measured by three different methods, DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). In this paper, fundamental differences among used AOA measuring methods were confirmed, which can be traced back to interactions occurring between phenols and/or sugars. Even though addition of individual phenols increased AOA of mixtures, in the majority of binary and ternary mixtures antagonistic effects were observed. Positive effect of sugar addition was more pronounced in binary mixtures but the results were highly dependent on used AOA method.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors:
Éva Váradi
,
Árpád Drobnyák
,
Barbara Végi
,
Krisztina Liptói
,
Csaba Kiss
, and
Judit Barna

The aim of the study was to find a practical and inexpensive method for freezing goose semen for use in routine inseminations under farm conditions. Two basic freezing protocols [(1) dynamic, programmable freezing and (2) static, nitrogen vapour method] were evaluated with varying concentrations of dimethylformamide (DMF) plus additional osmoprotectants such as betaine, trehalose, and sucrose, using cryovials as containers. Altogether eight different treatments were compared. sperm viability before freezing and after thawing was examined by in vitro tests and, in the case of the simplest effective method, also by in vivo fertility test. There were no significant differences in sperm survival either in the dynamic (48–50%) or in the static protocol (43–46%), except for the treatment where the lowest DMF concentration was used without any osmoprotectant in the dynamic protocol (42.6%). The addition of osmoprotectants did not improve thawed sperm viability in any case. Fertility with frozen/thawed sperm using the simplest method was 58.5%, while that obtained with fresh, diluted semen was 66.9%. The study proved that the simple freezing of gander semen in nitrogen vapour with 9% DMF in cryovials could produce acceptable fertility. The newly elaborated method can be successfully used for routine inseminations by small- and large-scale goose breeders.

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Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the leading cause of significant economic losses in the intensive beef industry worldwide. Beside numerous risk factors Pasteurella multocida, which is regarded as a secondary pathogen, may play a role in the development of the disease. Previous studies of strains from swine pneumonia revealed that there are a few clones associated with clinical disease, suggesting that some strains may be more virulent than others. This linkage may be true in the BRD, however composition of P. multocida populations in the herds are slightly characterized. Thus, we decided to perform phenotypic and genotypic characterisation of strains isolated from calves with respiratory infection at 31 different herds in Hungary. The results demonstrated the presence of two dominant strain types. At the identical taxonomic background (P. multocida subsp. multocida) with slight phenotypic variability they could be separated by trehalose fermentation capacity, α-glucosidase activity and molecular fingerprint patterns of ERIC- and M13-PCR. Independent prevalence and geographical origin of the strain types may refer to their significance in the illness, but their comparison with strains isolated from healthy individuals is taken into consideration.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors:
B. Baranyai
,
Sz. Bodó
,
A. Dinnyés
, and
Elen Gócza

Solid surface vitrification (SSV) was compared with in-straw vitrification for cryopreservation of biopsied mouse embryos. Eight-cell stage embryos were zona drilled and one blastomere was removed. Developed morulae or blastocysts were vitrified in microdrop (35% EG + 5% PVP + 0.4 M trehalose) or in straw (7.0 M EG + 0.5 M sucrose). Following recovery, embryos were cultivated in vi tro or transferred into recipients. Cryopreservation had an effect not only on the survival of biopsied embryos but also on their subsequent development in vitro. Cryosurvival of biopsied morulae vitrified in straw was significantly inferior to SSV. The post-warm development of biopsied and non-biopsied morulae was delayed on Day 3.5 and 4.5 in both vitrification groups. A delay in development was observed on Day 5.5 among vitrified non-biopsied blastocysts. The percentage of pups born from biopsied morulae or blastocysts following cryopreservation did not differ from that of the control. No significant differences could be detected between methods within and between embryonic stages in terms of birth rate. The birth rate of biopsied embryos vitrified in straw was significantly lower compared to the non-biopsied embryos. The novel cryopreservation protocol of SSV proved to be effective for cryopreservation of morula- and blastocyst-stage biopsied embryos.

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A total of 146 Pasteurella multocida strains isolated from swine in Hungary in the last 20 years were examined. Biochemical characterisation and PCR-based techniques were used to determine species, subspecies, biovar, capsule type and presence of the toxA gene. Eighty-seven percent of the isolates belonged to P. multocida ssp. multocida , and 98% of these had biovar 3 or were trehalose-or lactose-fermenting or ornithine decarboxylase negative variants of that. Ten percent of the strains were P. multocida ssp. septica , and within this group 80% of the strains showed sorbitol-negative biovars (5, 6 and 7). The rest of the strains (20%) were lactose positive. Only 3% of the porcine isolates were P. multocida ssp. gallicida and 3 out of the 4 strains belonged to the dulcitol-fermenting biovar 8. Using a capsule-specific multiplex PCR, 60% of the strains belonged to capsule type D, 38% to capsule type A, and only 1 isolate had capsule type F. In contrast with data published in the literature, only 3% of capsule type D isolates carried the toxA gene, while this ratio was 41% for the type A strains. A remarkable regional distribution of toxA gene positive strains was observed. All but two isolates were found in swine herds located in the Transdanubian region, separated from other parts of Hungary by the river Danube.

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. (2008): Trehalose: Protector of antioxidant enzymes or reactive oxygen species scavenger under heat stress? Environ. Exp. Bot. , 63 , 378–384. Wang W. Trehalose: Protector of

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