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learn from the Korean cloning fraud? . Journal of Medical Ethics 34 : 214 – 221 . Schoonbaert , D , Roelants , G 1996 Citation analysis for measuring the value of scientific publications: Quality

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This paper examines how Korean technological development is linked with scientific activities and spreads to industrial fields through knowledge flows. It empirically assesses the linkages between scientific and technological knowledge flows and technological innovation by determining whether the quantity and quality of scientific papers cited by, and the knowledge being absorbed in, Korean patents filed in USPTO varied over time, and between technology fields. We conducted MANOVA and then canonical discriminate analysis. Our findings are: the patterns of both the absorption of scientific knowledge and the diffusion of technological knowledge differ by period and by field, and the speed of knowledge diffusion differs by technology field. This implies that the time required for Korean investment in basic and applied research to impact her industrial innovation differs by technology field.

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On the basis of survey, conducted within the framework of the UNESCO International Comparative Study on the Organization of Research groups, the role and position of women in scientific activity is compared. Data on a total of (6000 individuals) from Argentina, India, Egypt, Korea, Poland and USSR show that women scientists' participation is highest in Poland, and lower in India, Korea and Argentina. Everywhere women scientists are more often doing the routine aspects of the research process and more isolated from external contacts with men. Women have lower scientific productivity than male scientists which can be interpreted as a consequence of their lower status in the organization.

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Through theoretical analysis and empirical demonstration, this paper attempts to model the behavior of science and technology by investigating the self-propagating behavior of their diffusion for South Korea, Malaysia and Japan. The dynamics of the self-propagating behavior were examined using the logistic growth function within a dynamic carrying capacity, while allowing for different effectiveness of potential influence of science and technology producers on potential adopters. Evidence suggests that the self-propagating growth function is particularly relevant for countries with advanced science and technology, like Japan. While self-propagating growth was also found for South Korea, the diffusion process remained fairly static for Malaysia.

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This study examines the relative efficiency of the R&D process across a group of 22 developed and developing countries using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). The R&D technical efficiency is examined using a model with patents granted to residents as an output and gross domestic expenditure on R&D and the number of researchers as inputs. Under CRS (Constant Returns to Scale), Japan, the Republic of Korea and China are found to be efficient, whereas under the VRS (Variable Returns to Scale) framework, Japan, the Republic of Korea, China, India, Slovenia and Hungary are found to be efficient. The emergence of some of the developing nations on the efficiency frontier indicates that these nations can also serve as benchmarks for their efficient use of R&D resources. The inefficiency in the R&D resource usage highlighted by this study indicates the underlying potential that can be tapped for the development and growth of nations.

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This note attempts to approximate the distribution function for the number of innovation activities (NIA) in the manufacturing sector using the dataset of 2002 Korean Innovation Survey. The mixture model applied here can easily capture the bimodality feature of the NIA distribution and provide some useful information such as the mean of NIA and the effect of a firm’s characteristic on whether the firm will undertake innovation activity.

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Scientometrics
Authors: Jun Yuan, Wei Yue, Cheng Su, Zheng Wu, Zheng Ma, Yun Pan, Nan Ma, Zhi Hu, Fei Shi, Zheng Yu, and Yi Wu

Abstract  

This research intends to investigate the patent activity on water pollution and treatment in China (1985–2007), and then compares the results with patents data about Triadic patents, South Korea, Brazil and India over the same periods, patents data were collected from Derwent World Patents Index between 1985 and May 2008. For this study, 169,312 patents were chosen and examined. Total volume of patents, technology focus, assignee sector, priority date and the comparison with other countries are analyzed. It is found that patents on water pollution and treatment filed at China have experienced a remarkable increase and the increase rate of patents filed at China change simultaneous with the percentage of domestic applications. However, the number of high quality Triadic patents with priority country as China remains small. Furthermore, in addition to individual patent assignees, both Chinese universities and enterprises also play important roles in patent activity of water pollution and treatment. In addition, the pattern of South Korea’s development can provide short-term implications for China and the regularity in Triadic patents’ development can provide some guidance to China’s long-term development. In contrast, the development pattern of Brazil and India is less influential to China’s development. Furthermore, China’s technology focuses on water pollution and treatment seem to parallel global and triadic patent trends. This research provides a comprehensive picture of China’s innovation capability in the area of water pollution and treatment. It will help China’s local governments to improve their regional S&T capability and will provide support the National Water Pollution Control and Treatment Project in China.

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Honour Index (HoI), a method to evaluate research performance within different research fields, was derived from the impact factor (IF). It can be used to rate and compare different categories of journals. HoI was used in this study to determine the scientific productivity of stem cell research in the Asian Four Dragons (Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea and Taiwan) from 1981 to 2001. The methodology applied in this study represents a synthesis of universal indicator studies and bibliometric analyses of subfields at the micro-level. We discuss several comparisons, and conclude the developmental trend in stem cell research for two decades.

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In this paper, an attempt has been made to examine the characteristics of research planning at the micrososmic level of the research group in six countries-Argentina, Egypt, India, Republic of Korea, Poland and UkSSR. The paper focusses on the following aspects: (1) intrinsic and extrinsic factors influencing the choice of research themes and orientation of the research programme; (2) quality of research planning measured by dimensions, such as planning consistency, task-interdependence and prior contacts with potential users; and (3) pattern of funding of research groups. Variations in the characteristics of research planning and funding mechanisms in different institutional and socio-cultural settings (countries) have been examined.

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Scientometrics
Authors: F. Lancaster, Sun-Yoon Kim Lee, and Catalina Diluvio

Abstract  

Two separate studies have looked at the question of whether or not the sources cited by scientists when they publish in their own national journals differ somewhat from the sources they cite when they publish outside their own country. Data derived from studies of Philippine scientists and Korean mathematicians do suggest that place of publication may exert some influence on citation behavior. In particular, a scientist is more likely to cite national sources when publishing in a national journal than when publishing internationally.

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