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who endorse the disorder have remarkable similarities in the five major facets of personality (neuroticism, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and openness to experience) and impulsiveness with those addicted to exogenous psychoactive

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empirical evidence for similarities between male and female users ( Green, Carnes, Carnes, & Weinmann, 2012 ; Laier, Pekal, & Brand, 2014 ). The results for men and women are consistent with the previous findings, suggesting that sexual arousal and craving

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( American Psychiatric Association, 2013 ). However, there is a current debate whether to consider other behaviors, such as Internet-use disorder or buying disorder as addictive conditions as well ( Potenza, 2006 ). Potential similarities between substance

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nature of TV series watching, which emerged as an acting and sustaining parallel factor from the analysis, finds also some similarities with other recreational behaviors. Most important, socialization motives (e.g., facilitate social ties) have already

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Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Ivar Snorrason, Ragnar P. Olafsson, David C. Houghton, Douglas W. Woods, and Han-Joo Lee

reported in Table 1 . Error covariances in this model seem to reflect similarity in wording and/or meaning of the items in the pairs. The two factors were highly correlated (.90) suggesting that a single factor might also fit the data. We estimated the fit

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Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Elisabeth Franc, Yasser Khazaal, Katarzyna Jasiowka, Thibault Lepers, Francesco Bianchi-Demicheli, and Stéphane Rothen

upgrading my self-esteem”). Because of the similarity in the cross-loading of Items 2 and 17, we decided to first test a model without these items (3F-a; Table  1 ), conserving, however, Item 16 related to cybersex use for self-esteem motives

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study show both similarities and clear differences between results for female problematic PU and previous studies on this subject for males ( Gola et al., 2016 ; Kraus, Martino, et al., 2016 ). First, our analysis showed that females seeking treatment

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-related cues hijack brain motivational systems and motivate addictive behaviors over alternative ones ( Versace et al., 2017 ). The concepts of cue-reactivity and craving have been transferred from SUDs to behavioral addictions, showing several similarities

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addiction treated with a rTMS protocol treatment targeting the l-DLPFC. There is a general consensus suggesting etiological, cognitive and personality features similarities between SUD and non-substance related addictions ( Brand et al., 2019 ; Brand, Young

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other proposed conditions that have similarities to gaming behaviors. Many of the first tools for problematic gaming and/or GD were created by adapting measures of pathological gambling and substance use disorders ( King & Delfabbro, 2019 ); similarly

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