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White rot caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (SS) is one of the most devastating plant diseases of sunflower. Controlling this pathogen by available tools hardly result in acceptable control. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of plant resistance inducers, BTH (benzothiadiazole in Bion 50 WG) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on disease development of white rot in three sunflower genotypes. Defence responses were characterized by measuring the disease severity and identifying cellular/histological reactions (e.g. autofluorescence) of host plants upon infection. Depending on the host genotype, a single application of inducers reduced disease symptoms. Histological examination of host responses revealed that BTH and/or AMF pre-treatments significantly impeded the development of pathogenic hyphae in Iregi szürke csíkos and P63LE13 sunflower plants and it was associated with intensive autofluorescence of cells. Both localized and systemic induction of resistance was observed. Importantly, the frequency of mycorrhization of hybrid P63LE13 and PR64H41 was significantly increased upon BTH treatment, so it had a positive effect on the formation of plant-mycorrhiza interactions in sunflower. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the additive effect of BTH on mycorrhization and the positive effect of these inducers against SS in sunflower.

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The lysosomal membrane-associated glycoproteins LAMP-1 and LAMP-2 are the major constituents of lysosomal membranes with still undefined biological functions. As autophagy is an alternative model of programmed cell death in which lysosomes play a crucial role, we hypothesize that LAMPs might participate in this phenomenon in the involuting thymus. Thymic glands from cases with acute (infection induced) and chronic (senile) involution were examined immunohistochemically for the expression of LAMPs. In acute involution LAMP-1 was localized mainly in medullary epithelial cells, in single macrophages and lymphocytes. Hassall's corpuscules were stained less intensely as compared to control specimens. The quantitative analysis showed a significantly elevated LAMP-2 expression compared to LAMP-1. LAMPs were detected with very slight reactivity in the senile thymus. The enhanced expression of LAMPs, and mainly of LAMP-2, in epithelial cells of incidentally involuted thymus might be an indicator of acute cell injury requiring autophagic degradation of damaged structures. The diminished expression of LAMPs in age-involuted thymus could be a sign of the morphological reorganization and the functional disregulation of the gland. In conclusion, we present novel evidence for differential expression of LAMP-1 and LAMP-2 in thymic involution suggesting their possible involvement in the process of accidental involution of the thymic gland.

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In recent years rapidly growing antibiotic resistance has increased interest toward natural products, especially essential oils because of their various effects. The aim of this study was to identify the chemical composition of the commercial Origanum onites essential oil (EO) and to investigate the antimicrobial activity by disc diffusion and dilution methods, against ten different ATCC strains, including eight bacteria, two yeasts and seventy-nine clinical nosocomial Escherichia coli isolates that produce extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL). The chemical composition of EO was analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The major compounds of the EO were determined as carvacrol (51.4%) followed by linalool (11.2%), p-cymene (8.9%) and γ-terpinene (6.7%). O. onites EO had antimicrobial activity against all standard strains and inhibited microbial growth of ESBL positive E. coli isolates. According to our results, O. onites EO may be an alternative to synthetic drug, used in combination with other antibiotics for treatment of infection caused by multidrug resistant bacteria after testing toxic effects and irritation at preferred doses on human.

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European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
Authors: Julia Münch, Ralf Matthias Hagen, Martin Müller, Viktor Kellert, Dorothea Franziska Wiemer, Rebecca Hinz, Norbert Georg Schwarz, and Hagen Frickmann

. Heudorf U , Albert-Braun S , Hunfeld KP , Birne FU , Schulze J , Strobel K , Petscheleit K , Kempf VA , Brandt C : Multidrug-resistant organisms in refugees: prevalences and impact on infection control in hospitals

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: P. Matušinsky, M. Váňová, L. Tvarůžek, I. Polišenská, M. Janeček, and V. Smutný

. Koch , H.J. , Pringas , C. , Maerlaender , B. 2006 . Evaluation of environmental and management effects on Fusarium head blight infection and deoxynivalenol concentration in the grain of winter wheat . Eur. J. Agron. 24 : 357 – 366

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European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
Authors: É. Nemes-Nikodém, E. Vörös, K. Pónyai, L. Párducz, S. Kárpáti, F. Rozgonyi, and Eszter Ostorházi

126 Módszertani ajánlás a szexuális úton terjedő infekciók kivizsgálására és kezelésére [Methodological letter of detection of sexually transmitted infections and treatment]. Egészség ügyi Közlöny

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. Y., Bai, B.H., Carver, B.F., Shaner, G.E., Hunger, R.M. (2005): Mapping of QTLs prolonging the latent period of Puccinia triticina infection in wheat. Theor. Appl. Genet. 110, 244–251 Hunger R

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Pandey, S. and Agnihorti, V. P. (1996): Elimination of red rot infection in seed pieces by chemotherapy: a new approach in disease control. Indian Phytopath. 49, 48-51. Elimination of red rot infection in seed pieces by

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Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica
Authors: E. Kiss, G. Kazinczi, J. Horváth, S. Kobza, T. Baranyi, M. Varga, B. Havasréti, and A. Fehér

Basky, Zs. (1983): A new way to use paraffinic oil-surfactant blends ‘ATPLUS 411 F’ in seed cucumbers to decrease stylet-borne virus infections. Med. Fac. Landbouww. Rijksuniv. Gent 48/3, 839-846. A new way to use paraffinic oil

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. 2011 . Fusarium graminearum forms mycotoxin producing infection structures on wheat . BMC Plant Biology 11 : 110 . Commission Regulation (EC) No 1126/2007 of 28 September 2007

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