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In recent years rapidly growing antibiotic resistance has increased interest toward natural products, especially essential oils because of their various effects. The aim of this study was to identify the chemical composition of the commercial Origanum onites essential oil (EO) and to investigate the antimicrobial activity by disc diffusion and dilution methods, against ten different ATCC strains, including eight bacteria, two yeasts and seventy-nine clinical nosocomial Escherichia coli isolates that produce extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL). The chemical composition of EO was analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The major compounds of the EO were determined as carvacrol (51.4%) followed by linalool (11.2%), p-cymene (8.9%) and γ-terpinene (6.7%). O. onites EO had antimicrobial activity against all standard strains and inhibited microbial growth of ESBL positive E. coli isolates. According to our results, O. onites EO may be an alternative to synthetic drug, used in combination with other antibiotics for treatment of infection caused by multidrug resistant bacteria after testing toxic effects and irritation at preferred doses on human.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: M. Kwiatek, H. Wiśniewska, Z. Kaczmarek, M. Korbas, M. Gawłowska, M. Majka, K. Pankiewicz, J. Danielewicz, and J. Belter

Pch1 gene translocated from Aegilops ventricosa provides effective resistance to eyespot in wheat. To track the Pch1 gene introgression, we investigated 372 genotypes obtained from various breeding programs using endopeptidase EpD1b marker, sequence-tagged-site (STS) marker XustSSR2001-7DL, and the score of infection index (K-index) evaluated after in vivo inoculation test. These genotypes were divided into three groups with 136, 124 and 112 genotypes for the field test lasting three years. In 2011, the mean K-index was 0.81, while 2012 and 2013 the mean K-indexes were 1.60 and 1.46, respectively. Both marker results indicated that 18 genotypes possessed Pch1 gene. Statistical analysis of the level of K-index showed that these 18 genotypes were resistant to eyespot, which verified the proper assignment of wheat genotypes with Pch1 gene based on the marker data. Thus, the endopeptidase and XustSSR2001-7DL are useful for identifying sources of eyespot resistance gene Pch1 in wheat breeding program.

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Recruitment limitation has been hypothesized to promote the maintenance of high species diversity in forests by slowing down competitive exclusion. However, the difference of recruitment limitation for tree species with varying seed masses, which is a common phenomenon in tropical or subtropical forests, is largely unknown. In this study we conducted a seed sowing experiment for five dominant tree species with varying seed mass (a proxy of dispersal ability) in a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest at different successional stages to test the hypothesis that the determinants of species recruitment vary with their seed masses in Heishiding Nature Reserve (Guangdong Province, China). The effects of seed predators, soil pathogens, light conditions, plant litter, seed additions, and the presence of adult conspecific trees on the performance of seeds and seedlings for the five species were examined. We particularly investigated the effects of habitat hazards and seed size on the relative importance of dispersal limitation and establishment limitation. The results show that all five sowing species experienced recruitment limitation at the microsite level, although the causes of the limitation of these species varied between pathogen infection, animal predation, litter covering and shading. Seedling recruitment of the wind-dispersed, small-seeded species was mostly limited by microsite condition, while large-seeded species were mostly limited by dispersal ability.

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European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
Authors: É. Nemes-Nikodém, E. Vörös, K. Pónyai, L. Párducz, S. Kárpáti, F. Rozgonyi, and Eszter Ostorházi

126 Módszertani ajánlás a szexuális úton terjedő infekciók kivizsgálására és kezelésére [Methodological letter of detection of sexually transmitted infections and treatment]. Egészség ügyi Közlöny

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European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
Authors: Julia Münch, Ralf Matthias Hagen, Martin Müller, Viktor Kellert, Dorothea Franziska Wiemer, Rebecca Hinz, Norbert Georg Schwarz, and Hagen Frickmann

. Heudorf U , Albert-Braun S , Hunfeld KP , Birne FU , Schulze J , Strobel K , Petscheleit K , Kempf VA , Brandt C : Multidrug-resistant organisms in refugees: prevalences and impact on infection control in hospitals

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. Y., Bai, B.H., Carver, B.F., Shaner, G.E., Hunger, R.M. (2005): Mapping of QTLs prolonging the latent period of Puccinia triticina infection in wheat. Theor. Appl. Genet. 110, 244–251 Hunger R

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: P. Matušinsky, M. Váňová, L. Tvarůžek, I. Polišenská, M. Janeček, and V. Smutný

. Koch , H.J. , Pringas , C. , Maerlaender , B. 2006 . Evaluation of environmental and management effects on Fusarium head blight infection and deoxynivalenol concentration in the grain of winter wheat . Eur. J. Agron. 24 : 357 – 366

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Pandey, S. and Agnihorti, V. P. (1996): Elimination of red rot infection in seed pieces by chemotherapy: a new approach in disease control. Indian Phytopath. 49, 48-51. Elimination of red rot infection in seed pieces by

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Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica
Authors: E. Kiss, G. Kazinczi, J. Horváth, S. Kobza, T. Baranyi, M. Varga, B. Havasréti, and A. Fehér

Basky, Zs. (1983): A new way to use paraffinic oil-surfactant blends ‘ATPLUS 411 F’ in seed cucumbers to decrease stylet-borne virus infections. Med. Fac. Landbouww. Rijksuniv. Gent 48/3, 839-846. A new way to use paraffinic oil

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. 2011 . Fusarium graminearum forms mycotoxin producing infection structures on wheat . BMC Plant Biology 11 : 110 . Commission Regulation (EC) No 1126/2007 of 28 September 2007

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