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Colchicine is a plant alkaloid, known for thousands of years and currently used widely for the doubling of the genome in plant and animal cells due to its antimitotic effect. The aim of the present experiments was to develop stable autodiploid pollen grains in vitro in diploid lines of rye (Secale cereale L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and to use these in intra- and interspecific crosses. Spikelet cultures of one rye and one barley variety were subjected to colchicine treatment in different stages of development and under differing in vitro conditions. Exposure to colchicine led to a drastic reduction both in the number of fertile pollen grains and in the percentage seed-setting, which was only observed in cultures inoculated in the early binuclear microspore stage. On medium containing colchicine the seed-setting percentage was 1.6% for barley and 0.1% for rye. Flow cytometry and root tip analysis revealed that all the progeny barley plants were diploid, while in the case of rye one was tetraploid, indicating that the egg cell may also be diploidised by colchicine treatment.

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): Visual selection of transgenic barley (Hordeum vulgare) structures and their regeneration into green plants . Thesis, University of Guelph. Castillo, A. M., Valles, M. P., Cistue, L. (2000): Comparison of

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Hejnák V.: 2003. The effect of drought on production of dry matter in spring barley ( Hordeum vulgare L., cv. Amulet, Krona and historical cv. Nűrnberg) — Scientia Agriculturae Bohemica vol. 34 no. 4 121

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facultative × winter growth habit barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) mapping population. Theor. Appl. Genet. 110 :1458–1466. Bedő Z. The Vrn-H2 locus is a major determinant of flowering

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63 70 Birch, C.J. and Long, K.E. (1990). Effect of nitrogen on the growth, yield and grain protein content of barley ( Hordeum vulgare ). Australian Journal of

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, A. K. (2009): Improved in vitro technique for screening of barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) genotypes against toxin produced by spot blotch pathogen Bipolaris sorokiniana . Indian J. of Agricultural Sciences 79, 562

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Hejnák V. (2003): The effect of drought on production of dry matter in spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L., cv. Amulet, Krona and historical cv. Nűrnberg). Scientia Agriculturae Bohemica vol. 34 no. 4 121

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288 292 Faure, S., Higgins, J., Turner, A., Laurie, D. A. (2007): The FLOWERING LOCUS T -like gene family in barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.). Genetics , 176

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Ellis, R.P. and Marshall, B. (1998). Growth, yield and grain quality of barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) in response to nitrogen uptake. II. Plant development and rate of germination. Journal of Experimental Botany 49: 1021

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Nutrient management practices that concurrently improve soil properties and yield are essential for sustaining barley production. This study was conducted to evaluate the impact of balanced nitrogen fertilizer application involving farmyard manure (FYM) and residue management. The experiment had a factorial arrangement of five levels of mineral N and two organic fertilizer sources. The five levels of N fertilizer were applied in three replicates in combination with each of the two organic sources and a control (without organic source). Average plant height (PH), grain yield (GY), and straw yield (SY) were significantly (P <0.05) influenced by the main effect of N application and organic source; however their interaction was insignificant. The highest grain yield (103%) was obtained with 120 kg N compared to the control. The grain yield increased by 23.4% and 44% with FYM and residue, respectively, against the untreated control.

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