susceptible area of the tower structure, as the first natural frequency is not close to the corresponding 1P and 3P and the tower is a soft–stiff tower design. Future research work and investigation will be based on the development of buckling and fatigue
Authors:Hayder Wafi Al-Thabhawee and Abbas Ali Al-Hassan
produce hexagonal openings. This process can increase the depth of a beam up to 50%, which results in a significant enhancement of the member's flexural strength, and the existence of openings in the web portions affects the buckling resistance of the
Authors:Ivan Baláž, Yvonna Koleková, Lydia Moroczová, and Antonio Agüero
incorrect verification of out-of-plane buckling resistance of the column under combination of the axial and horizontal forces, do not solve built-up columns under combination of axial force and biaxial bending; do not solve built-up columns made from
flexural strength of the compressed bars and the buckling strength of the plates and shells. Warps can result in dimensionally inaccurate structural elements and scrap. Therefore, it is necessary to estimate their magnitude in advance by calculating and
are located in a high seismic hazard zone. Three retrofit schemes were introduced including; 1) X-Steel bracings; 2) buckling restrained composite bracings; and 3) composite concrete-steel plate shear walls. The seismic performance enhancement of the
Aydogdu M. Semi-inverse method for vibration and buckling of axially functionally graded beams, Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites , Vol. 27, 2008, online version
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Before the 1960s the ductility notion was used only for characterizing the material behaviour. After Baker's research on plastic design, this concept has been extended to the structural level. This paper provides a general overview of ductility. The paper examines the behaviour of material ductility, cross-section ductility and member ductility separately, then it studies how the sum of the effects of all these ductilities affect the structural ductility. The effect of the different ductilities can be built into the structural behaviour through an interactive hinge model. The model of the interactive hinge also takes into consideration the effects of the residual stresses and deformations, the strain hardening and the plate buckling.
In traditional orthotropic plates the trapezoidal longitudinal stiffener is welded to the transverse girder web and to the bottom flange of the main girder. In a recently developed orthotropic plate the stiffeners and the transverse girder web are not connected. This approach provides for a significant reduction in the amount of flame cutting and welding, but more importantly there is no longer a need to assess the fatigue condition of the weld between the stiffener and the web. On the other hand, the potential for local buckling of the free edge of the web near the trapezoidal stiffener must be considered.