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The mycotoxins β-zearalenol (β-ZOL) and deoxynivalenol (DON) produce toxic effects that result in diseases in humans and animals. The molecular mechanisms that control the mycotoxin-mediated effects are far from being completely understood. Various results show that these mycotoxins could inhibit cell proliferation. In the present short communication, the influence of β-ZOL and DON on the abundance and phosphorylation state of kinases that are included in regulation of the initiation of mRNA translation (which is correlated with cell proliferation) was compared in porcine endometrial cells (PEC). Our results indicate that these mycotoxins modulate the expression and phosphorylation of these factors in a different manner. Whereas β-ZOL mainly had an impact on the biological activity of the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), protein kinase B (Akt), eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) and its repressor 4E binding protein 1 (4E-BP1), DON reduced the abundance of p38 MAPk, Akt and specific 4E-BP1 bands. In summary, these results indicate that β-ZOL influences molecular events that are included in the initiation of mRNA translation in the porcine endometrium but DON does not alter such processes clearly.

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In 2014 and 2015, we studied the effect of fungicide spraying with 11 different nozzles on the quality and quantity of head and leaf fungicide deposit, the percentage of Fusarium head blight (FHB) incidence, FHB index, the DON content, yield and grain quality parameters. The best quality and quantity of fungicide deposit on the front and rear head sides was achieved with the TeeJet Turbo FloodJet TF VP2 nozzle (FLOOD) and the Albuz AVI-TWIN 110-03 nozzle (AVI). In comparison with the majority of treatments, the FHB incidence and the FHB index was the highest on the unsprayed control. The FHB index was higher using the Lechler IDK 120-03 nozzle (IDK) than with the other nozzle types. In all the treatments, the DON content in the grain was less than 50 μg/kg. At this very low level of infection this is not surprising. The grain yield was the smallest on the unsprayed control. Better fungicide coverage of wheat heads with the FLOOD and AVI nozzles did not result in a statistically higher yield or better grain quality parameters. Negative correlations were confirmed between yield and variables as DON content, FHB incidence and FHB index and also between falling number and variables as fungicide coverage, FHB incidence and FHB index. Positive correlations were determined between DON content and FHB incidence, between hectolitre weight and variables as spray deposit and coverage and between protein content and variables as spray deposit and coverage.

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The effect of different timings of fungicide applications on Fusarium head blight severity and mycotoxin accumulation in wheat grain was investigated in two field experiments. The fungicides metconazole, tebuconazole, azoxystrobin and mixtures of metconazole + azoxystrobin and tebuconazole + azoxystrobin were applied either, 5 days pre-, 2 days pre-, 2 days post-or 5 days post-inoculation of wheat ears with Fusarium spp. and Microdochium spp. at GS 65. Fungicides applied 2 days pre-or 2 days post-inoculation were most effective at reducing Fusarium head blight severity and DON concentration in grain. Metconazole and tebuconazole applied alone within two days of inoculation were most consistent in their effects on Tri5 DNA and DON in harvested grain.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: Norbert Schlang, Ulrike Steiner, Heinz-Wilhelm Dehne, Jiro Murakami, Etienne Duveiller, and Erich-Christian Oerke

irrigation and host resistance on deoxynivalenol accumulation in Fusarium -infected wheat. Plant Disease 91 :1464–1472. Dill-Macky R. Effect of extended irrigation and host

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55 463 470 Bergsjø, B., Langseth, W., Nafstad, I., Jansen, J. H. and Larsen, H. J. S. (1993): The effects of naturally deoxynivalenol

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, P.A., Lipps, P.E., Hershman, D.E., McMullen, M.P., Draper, M.A., Madden, L.V. 2007. A quantitative review of tebuconazole effect on Fusarium head blight and deoxynivalenol content in wheat. Phytopathology 97 :211

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, T., Buśko, M., Cichy, H., Jackowiak, H., Perkowski, J. 2002. Resistance of winter triticale lines and cultivars to Fusarium head blight and deoxynivalenol accumulation in kernels. J. Appl. Genet. 43A :237

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: P. Matušinsky, M. Váňová, L. Tvarůžek, I. Polišenská, M. Janeček, and V. Smutný

, L. , Scudellari , D. , Reyneri , A. 2012 . Integrated strategies for the control of Fusarium head blight and deoxynivalenol contamination in winter wheat . Field Crops Res. 133 : 139 – 149

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Viera Revajová, Mikuláš Levkut, Mária Levkutová, Radka Bořutová, Ľubomíra Grešaková, Božena Košiková, and Ľubomír Leng

Awad, W. A., Ghareeb, K., Bohm, J., Razzazi, E., Hellweg, P. and Zentek, J. (2008): The impact of the Fusarium toxin deoxynivalenol (DON) on poultry. Int. J. Poult. Sci. 7 , 827

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