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By the middle of the 1960s, only a couple of years after his defection from Hungary to Austria and West Germany, Ligeti had already achieved canonical status in Western circles of contemporary music, even if more in German speaking countries than in English speaking ones. As a by-product of this extremely quick process, Ligeti was identified with the new musical language of ‚Klangkomposition‘ (sound-mass music) and micropolyphonic texture, an identification that has stuck with him since — the works written from 1958 to 1967, and Atmosphères in particular, remain by far his best known and most frequently cited compositions. If canonization in itself must be regarded to a certain degree as desirable to any composer, in Ligeti’s case there were unwanted effects of this development. Although the composer himself contributed to it by his writings, his early identification as a composer of sound masses not only narrowed the reception of his oeuvre but affected his later self-image as a composer, too.

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Ligeti’s claim that his etudes are neither tonal nor atonal can be demonstrated with the functions of the fifths in the etude No. 8 “Fém.” The fifths are integrated into the musical relationships partly in a traditional and partly in a modern manner. Customarily, the interval of a fifth is added to single tones in order to establish tonal spaces and implying fundamentals. A peculiarly modern aspect is the use of fifths as parts of the overtone series.

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The article focuses on Ligeti’s synaesthesia: after referring to some early ‘synaesthetic’ compositions often mentioned by the composer, the phenomenon of synaesthesia in general is examined. It turns out that Ligeti’s fondness of synaesthesia has to be seen in relation to his ‘postmodern’ emphasis on spatiality in music – and thereby with his attempts to overcome transitoriness and death.

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This article re-investigates the use of Ligeti’s second movement of his Requiem “Kyrie” (1963/1965) in Stanley Kubrick’s 2001 — A Space Odyssey (1968). It does so in light of allusions to heroic models and the – obviously – heroic Zarathustra fanfare, both of which are pervasive in Kubrick’s film. The article aims at determining compositional means that refer to heroic ideas in avant-garde music of the 1960s, a time period in which radically new and skeptical views of heroism came to the fore that also affected the articulation of the heroic in music.

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Zoltán Kodály’s Kállai kettős [Couple Dance of Kálló] was premiered by the Hungarian State Folk Ensemble in Budapest in 1951. However, it was not in Kodály’s work that the folk songs arranged in it were first presented to the cultured public. In the interchange of folk tradition and high culture they have already cropped up in the past three hundred years, among others in stage productions. This paper examines the folkloristic sources of Kodály’s work from a dual angle: how they were connected to the stage before Kodály’s arrangement and how their variants were embedded in the folk tradition. Today Kállai kettős is living also a “double life”: Kodály’s work is part of the national canon, but it is also present in the traditional productions of the revivalists of Nagykálló.

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Tonal residua and other remnants of older musical styles and idioms seem to be inevitably bound to Ligeti’s musical language. The numerous ways of integrating the stylistic heterogeneity in his works are extremely individual and may be seen as part of each work’s specific narrative. In his early essay about musical form, Ligeti interprets Adorno’s idea of material as a parameter of form either as congealed time or as traces of musical memory. This article aims to show the different levels and qualities of musical thought Ligeti deals with by analyzing the different layers of traditional strata in his music.

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This article argues that, alongside his modernist credentials, Ligeti was more than any of his avant-garde colleagues an instinctive melodist. I suggest that this underrated aspect of Ligeti’s art was temporally, but only partially, submerged by the innovative techniques of the 1960s, and in Ligeti’s later music became increasingly significant, contributing greatly to the stature, breadth and accessibility of his work overall.

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Studia Musicologica
Authors:
Anna Dalos
,
Julia Heimerdinger
,
Márton Kerékfy
, and
Heidy Zimmermann

The overwhelming majority of this double issue is dedicated to the 100th birthday of György Ligeti (1923–2006) which we celebrated with a conference titled “Kylwiria and Other Explorations.” This international meeting of musicologists took place at

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.). Festschrift für einen Verleger. Ludwig Strecker zum 90. Geburtstag ( Mainz : Schott , 1973 ). Dibelius , Ulrich . György Ligeti: Eine Monographie in Essays ( Mainz : Schott , 1994 ). Duchesneau , Louise. “ ‘Play it like Bill Evans’: György Ligeti and

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turn towards incorporating elements of the past and the non-Western in works from the Horn Trio onward. Like Zenck, Rudolf Frisius's contribution to the 1987 collection György Ligeti: Personalstil – Avantgardismus – Popularität discussed the

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