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From a late 16th century Four Elements series two, the depictions of Air and Water, can be found in the Hungarian National Gallery. Another element is identified by the author in a painting of a female head at the Múzeum Červený Kameň. The picture is badly damaged, the original inscription is missing. On the basis of the ochre and red colours it can be taken for the allegory of Fire: the figure is holding a pair of tongs between two fingers. The picture in the Múzeum Červený Kameň is registered as a work by someone in the circle of Matthias Gundelach. When it turned out that the painting belonged to the Budapest series (whose style is alien to Gundelach), this attribution had to be discarded. The Budapest allegories are now put up in the exhibition as works created by someone close to Bartholomäus Spranger, but in the present paper they are defined as works by Spranger himself. It is first of all the depiction of Air that can be easily tied to the authentic works of the Prague painter (Venus, Ceres and Bacchus, c. 1590, Graz, Joanneum; Christ Appearing to Mary Magdalene, 1591, Bucharest, Muzeul de Arte), while the rendering of Water is closest to the allegorical female figures in the lower part of his picture The Triumph of Knowledge (Vienna, Kunsthistorisches Museum). The pictures were probably painted in the early 1590s, which dating may be confirmed by the lack of any trace of J. Heintz's and H. von Aachen's influence. Art historians ascribe the change in Spranger's style to the influence of these two painters which began to be felt in the first half of the 1590s. This altered style is characterized by a metallic modelling, powerful contours and strong light-and-shade effects. The painting in the Múzeum Červený Kameň came to the museum from Alsó-Korompa (Dolná Krupa), from the country house formerly belonging to the Brunszvik, later to the Chotek families. This provenance is also a clue to the Budapest paintings. Chief justice Count József Brunszvik's collection was in Buda in the early 19th century, and about half of its items were transferred to Alsó-Korompa after his death. In the detailed inventory taken on that occasion no trace of the series or its parts can be found, which means that they did not originate from the Brunszvik collection. As the country house went over to the Chotek family through the marriage of József Brunszvik's daughter, it is not impossible that the Four Elements series had once been possessed by that family.

In 1983 the Hungarian National Gallery purchased a canvas tapestry painted in tempera as Ferenc Rákóczi II's itinerant tapestry. Originally it belonged to a series of seven pieces and was still in the Zboró (Zborov) castle of the Rákóczi family as late as around 1870. Another piece found its way into the Hungarian National Museum. What shed light on the iconography of the series was the identification of the engraving serving as precursor: the depictions visualize quotations from Horace's poems after the engravings of Otto van Veen's Emblemata Horatiana, a book of emblems (Antwerp, 1607). The tapestry in the Hungarian National Gallery shows Diogenes with the hedonist philosopher Aristippus in dispute. In the other tapestry there are two pictures: the allegory of “material sobriety” and a parable of wise understanding and tractability illustrated with the story of the mythological twins Amphion and Zethus. The prototypes suggest that the series was made sometime in the 17th century, using the 1607 or 1612 Antwerp edition. As no copy of the publication can be traced in 17th-century Hungary, the cycle was probably not painted in Hungary, or in Central Europe. Since the tapestry cannot be found in any inventory of Prince Rákóczi's property, it was probably later imported, presumably in the 18th century – when the castle of Zboró was at the hands of the later owners Count Aspremont and Erdődy families.

The composition of the St Martin episode in the St Martin Church of Szombathely – formerly on display at the Hungarian National Gallery – originates in an engraving by Adriaen Collaert made after Jan van der Straet's (Giovanni Stradano) invention. Figure of Saint Martin in the painting dated to around 1653 is perhaps a crypto portrait of a person with initials “M(artinus) A” written on the dog's collar. Around him Hungarian noblemen are depicted. The coat of arms in the picture – maybe of the client who ordered it – is so far unidentified.

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A colourful, dazzling world was created by one of the strangest Hungarian art collectors, lawyer and patent judge Alfréd Perlmutter (1867-1929), around himself. His art works radiated that iridescent and serene atmosphere which his brother the painter Izsák created in his pictures. Alfréd fitted out his home with Louis XV, Maria Theresa and Joseph II period furniture as well as empire pieces. Gilded bronze bracket lamps and a cartel clock were on the walls. Colours were first of all provided by the textiles (Flemish tapestries on the walls, rugs from Asia Minor and mainly China on the floor together with a Spanish carpet) and ceramics. First of all he collected oriental, Chinese objects, but his attention was also captured by Italian maiolica, Hispano-Moorish bowls of a metallic lustre, diverse forms of Holics faiance. He had some exquisite enameled pieces of goldsmith’s art, outstanding objects from Limoges. They included a crosier whose analogy can be found in the Louvre collection.

Perlmutter was the admirer and captive of colours and the East (China). Art provided real pleasure for him, and an art work was for him the noblest form of perception. That is why he could rise above the limitations of periods, space and time, grasping the genuine inherent value of art, its esthetic quality, by his sensitivity and intellect. His refined taste was manifest in the selection of objects and the decoration of his home.

The inspiration for collecting came from a relative of his wife Lili Hirsch, Horace Ritter von Landau, who owned one of the most beautiful book collections in the world together with other works of art. Lili Hirsch’ brother Albert married Irén Hatvany, thus coming into close contact with the Hatvany family who created one of Hungary’s most exquisite art collections.

Apart from contemporary Hungarian examples, the fine art collections of the haute bourgeoisie, Alfréd Perlmutter must have known foreign collections and museums as he was widely travelled. Some of his collection pieces were purchased during his foreign journeys, others from contemporaneous Hungarian private collections. By way of an example, he came into possession of fine pieces from the one-time estate of Kálmán Giergl through Hugó Kilényi’s collection.

He had few paintings, some of his brother Izsák’s works and some István Csók pictures who also depicted his Flemish tapestry and was himself attracted to Chinese art. Alfréd Perlmutter died in 1929, his collection passed on to his wife. From 1930 several works of art were borrowed from her for exhibitions of the Museum of Fine Arts.

During World War II, in the period of German occupation and Soviet liberation Mrs Perlmutter moved frequently and a part of the collection got lost without a trace. During the war she had to sell many pieces, and only two of the listed art works came eventually into the collection of the Museum of Applied Arts (a 16th century tapestry and an empire style swan-bed), as well as a renaissance Italian dish from some other source. A Holics vessel was donated to the museum by the heirs.

Painter Izsák Perlmutter also had art works that were inherited by his daughter, the widow of a Persian prince. She was the heir of the tenement building at No. 60, Andrássy avenue and the villa in Rákospalota. The Andrássy road palace was rented by the nazi Arrow-cross party, then by the secret police of the Inner Ministry. In 1951 it was nationalized, the prince’s widow was displaced, the art works were transported to an unknown location. She managed to identify and get a few back in 1962.

Both Perlmutter collections fell victim to history, from German occupiers to Soviet liberators and post-World War owner changes, expropriations. Everyone pilfered them who could have a hold on them, including the wildings of that-time art trade. As a result, apart from a few museum objects the great part of the two collections perished or is latent.

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coordination . Oxford : Oxford University Press . Wilson , Horace Hayman . 2002 . Ṛgveda Saṃhita . Varanasi: Indica

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Sixth- and Seventh-Century Elephant Ivory Finds from the Carpathian Basin •

The Sources, Circulation and Value of Ivory in Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages

Elefántcsonttárgyak A 6–7. Századi Kárpát-Medencében

Az Elefántcsont Forrása, Forgalma És Értéke A Késő Ókorban És A Kora Középkorban
Archaeologiai Értesítő
Authors: Ádám Bollók and István Koncz

, Horace Leonard (ed. and transl.) 1917 The Geography of Strabo in Eight Volumes, Vol. I: Books I–II . The Loeb Classical Library 49 . Cambridge’, Mass–London . Jones , Horace Leonard (ed. and transl.) 1930 The Geography of Strabo in Eight

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. Holmes J. S. 1972. The Name and Nature of Translation Studies. Unpublished manuscript, Amsterdam: University of Amsterdam, Department of General Literary Studies. Reprinted in Holmes 1988. 66-80. Horace 20 BC? Ars Poetica

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son. As inspiration and authority for this creative choice he cites a verse from Horace’s ars poetica . 4 The remaining half of the letter is spent mainly on a minute description of the different mechanics of the

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Acta Antiqua Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae
Authors: Patricia A. Johnston and Attilo Mastrocinque

to them are less often investigated. How did Roman writers deal with this ambiguity? Catullus, for example, or Vergil, and Horace, and Juvenal? And was this ambiguity similarly reflected in Greek writers? Does physical or literary evidence survive to

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poétique n'était pas possible. Du reste, pour ceux de ces mots qui ne sont pas des hapax, ils avaient parfois été déjâ employés auparavant par des poètes (par exemple petorritum est chez Horace, ueredus chez Martial, cantherius chez Plaute et d

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Aramaic Dead Sea fragments, Vol. 2: Introduction, Translation and Commentary . Oxford : Clarendon . Lunt , Horace 1985 . ‘Ladder of Jacob: a New Translation and Introduction.’ In: James H. Charlesworth (ed.) The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha

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some in conjunction with other metres. Its bitterness may be seen in Catullus, Bibaculus, and Horace (though in him, the epode breaks it up).” 27 Also in ancient times Catullus belonged to iambic poets, he had a reputation for his iambi. Quintilian

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