Authors:Jenny Alongi, Claudio Colleoni, Giuseppe Rosace, and Giulio Malucelli
cotton fabrics treated with the hydrolyzed pure precursor sol (DEPTES or APTES) and MF. In addition, the FT-IR spectra of the hybrid thin films, obtained mixing DEPTES with MF or APTES, applied and annealed on the textile samples are shown in Figs. 2
Hyperbranched epoxy resin (HTDE) has relatively low viscosity and high molecular mass and holds great promise as a functional
additive for enhancing the strength and toughness of thermosetting resins. In this work, the curing and thermal degradation
kinetics of HTDE/diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A epoxy (DGEBA) hybrid resin were studied in detail using differential scanning
calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TG) techniques by Coats–Redfern model. The effect of molecular mass or generation
and content of HTME on the activation energy, reaction order, and curing time were discussed; the results indicated that HTDE
could accelerate the curing speed and reduce the activation energy and reaction order of the curing reaction.
A new hybrid ion exchanger, Triton X-100 based tin(IV) phosphate (TX-100SnP) has been synthesized and characterized by ion
exchange and physico-chemical methods such as ion exchange capacity, elution and concentration behaviour, IR, X-ray, TG/DTA
and elemental analysis. Its adsorption behaviour has also been studied for some alkaline earths and heavy metal ions in different
acidic media. It has been found generally more selective for metal ions as compared to tin(IV) phosphate prepared earlier.
For Pb(II), Hg(II) and Fe(III) its selectivity has been found to be exceptionally good. On this basis, some binary separations
have been performed involving these metal ions. Thermal studies show a high thermal stability of the material. It retains
54.54% of its i.e.c. at 200�C and 27.27% at 300�C.
Authors:F. Sinfrônio, A. Souza, Ieda Santos, V. Fernandes Jr., Cs. Novák, and Zsuzsanna Éhen
and mass spectrometry (MS) combined techniques have been used to investigate
the thermal degradation and catalytic decomposition of high-density polyethylene
(HDPE) over solid acid catalysts as H-ZSM-5, Al-MCM-41 and a hybrid material
with a bimodal pore size distribution (H-ZSM-5/Al-MCM-41). The silicon/aluminum
ratio of all catalysts is 15. Both thermal and catalytic processes showed
total conversion in a single mass loss step. Furthermore, the catalytic conversion
presents average reduction of 27.4%, in the onset decomposition temperature.
The kinetic parameters were calculated using non-isothermal method. These
parameters do not indicate significant differences between the thermal and
catalytic processes. Even though, the presence of the catalysts changes the
reaction mechanism, from phase boundary controlled reaction to random nucleation
mechanism. Important difference in distribution of evolved products was detected
when several catalysts were used. However, in all cases the main products
were alkanes (C2, C3 and C4),
alkenes (C3 and C4), dienes
(C4 and C5) and traces of aromatic
Passive air samplers (polyurethane foam disks) were deployed at 25 urban sites and 66 rural sites over the period of July
to October 2005, partly between October 2005 and January 2006 for about 120 days across China, and analyzed for extractable
organo-chlorine /-bromine /-iodine (EOCl/EOBr/EOI) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) using hybrid neutron activation analysis
(NAA) combined with gas chromatographymass spectrometry (GC-MS). The average concentration of EOCl, EOBr, EOI and ΣPCBs among
all the sites were 173.7, 3.5, 1.0 and 0.74 ng/d, respectively. Higher values of EOCl/Br/I and PCBs were detected in the areas
of high usage and high emission, which were linked to relatively high-income areas in China, while lower in the west ill-developed
region of China, which indicated that these pollutants mainly came from industrial pollution. Higher EOCl contents in traffic
areas stated that the exhaust emission from vehicle was another main source of organochlorines in the air. The relative proportions
of the known organochlorines (84 PCB congeners) to total EOCl were 0.02–3.0%, which implied that most of EOCl measured in
air were unknown.
Authors:A. Swiderski, A. Wojtal, P. Muras, A. Mikulko, S. Wrobel, and H. Koloczek
method was used to study phase transitions in Rhododendron
L. leaf tissues caused by temperatures below the freezing point of water.
The curves show several stages of water crystallisation, demonstrating that
these processes do not occur simultaneously in various types of cell organelles.
Temperatures and enthalpies of the phase transitions were determined and significant
changes were found in the DSC curves when the sample was repeatedly subjected
to sub-zero temperature cooling and heating. Also, frost resistance of the
same rhododendron taxons was studied by conductometric analysis and the DSC
results were compared with the data from other laboratory studies.
Pyridine based thorium(IV) phosphate (PyThP) has been synthesized by drop-wise addition of the thorium(IV) nitrate with constant
stirring into a mixture of pyridine and phosphoric acid. This material has been characterized using X-ray, IR spectra, TG,
DTG and SEM studies in addition to its ion exchange capacity, elution and pH titrations. The material has been found amorphous
and fibrous in nature on the basis of X-ray diffraction and SEM studies. TG has revealed the changes incurred in the material
on thermal treatment and IR spectral studies have shown the presence of various groups in its structure.
Authors:Vincent Janssens, Christophe Block, Guy Van Assche, Bruno Van Mele, and Peter Van Puyvelde
A newly developed hyphenated technique is presented that combines an existing rheometer and differential scanning calorimeter
(DSC) into a single experimental setup. Through the development of a fixation accessory inside the cell of the calorimeter
and the introduction of an add-on unit for the rheometer, the simultaneous calorimetric and rheological measurement inside
the well-controlled thermal environment of a Tzero™ DSC cell opens new experimental possibilities. The evolution of thermal
and flow properties of a material can be simultaneously monitored during steady or oscillatory shear flow and regular or modulated
temperature DSC measurements. The technique offers interesting opportunities for the investigation of flow-induced transitions,
such as crystallization or phase separation, and provides a possibility for high-throughput screening of materials. The signal
quality of the novel technique in comparison to the stand-alone techniques is demonstrated by the evaluation of the calibration
factors and by measurements on standard materials. Finally, combined rheological and calorimetric melting and crystallization
experiments on polycaprolacton are performed.
Authors:Akio Iwanade, Noboru Kasai, Hiroyuki Hoshina, Yuji Ueki, Seiichi Saiki, and Noriaki Seko
We have developed a material that can be used to remove cesium (Cs) in Fukushima Prefecture and other contaminated areas.
The developed material was prepared by radiation-induced graft polymerization of ammonium 12-molybdophosphate and acrylonitrile
onto nonwoven polyethylene fabric. To evaluate the adsorption performance of the developed material, we conducted batch and
column experiments by using a Cs solution with a concentration of 1 ppm at pH 7. In the batch study, the adsorbent was able
to remove 90, 87 and 64 % of Cs from pure water, acidic water and seawater, respectively. In the column study, adsorbent packed
in a column with a diameter of 7 mm and a height of 5 cm was able to remove nearly the entire amount of dissolved Cs. The
solution (1 ppm Cs at pH 7) was pumped into the column at a space velocity of 300 h−1, in which the Cs adsorption capacity at the breakthrough point reached 54 g-Cs/kg-adsorbent. Adsorbent grafted into a cartridge
with a diameter of 4 cm and a height of 3.8 cm was used in a field test on removing dissolved radioactive Cs in Iitate-mura,
and this test was conducted successfully.