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Psychedelic-Assisted Therapies (PATs). The most empirically substantiated PAT for trauma incorporates an 18-session protocol that uses MDMA as the active agent in up to three separate sessions ( Mitchell et al., 2023 ). In addition, preliminary studies offer

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decriminalization, groundbreaking legalization of therapeutic psilocybin, pending approval of MDMA for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (2003), and bills in progress legalizing personal possession and use, the expansion of psychotherapeutic approaches and applications

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(broadly inclusive of psilocybin, lysergic-acid diethylamide [LSD], ketamine, and 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine [MDMA]) with psychotherapy could enhance intrinsic aspects related to recovery capital such as motivation, connectedness, self-efficacy and

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Journal of Psychedelic Studies
Authors:
John M. Clifton
,
Annabelle M. Belcher
,
Aaron D. Greenblatt
,
Christopher M. Welsh
,
Thomas O. Cole
, and
Alan K. Davis

, methamphetamines, heroin, prescription opioids, benzodiazepines, cocaine/crack, LSD, mescaline, mushrooms, DMT, salvia PCP, and MDMA (ecstasy). Perceived risk Participants were asked whether they had ever heard of

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treatment assignment can significantly influence both placebo and nocebo effects in psychedelic therapy. In a similar vein, Flameling, Aday, and Van Elk (2023) point out the potential for both placebo and nocebo effects in MDMA trials. It is described that

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Journal of Psychedelic Studies
Authors:
Cody Sykes Gilbert
,
Mitch Earleywine
,
Maha N. Mian
, and
Brianna R. Altman

., 2007 ). Researchers once praised MDMA, which increases activity in both systems, as a potential antidepressant ( Riedlinger & Riedlinger, 1994 ). MDMA-assisted treatment for other disorders appear to help depressive symptoms , though those in the

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, Wiegand, Taitano, & Delgado, 2006 ), end-of-life anxiety ( Griffiths et al., 2016 ), and substance use disorders ( Johnson, Garcia-Romeu, Cosimano, & Griffiths, 2014 ; Sessa et al., 2021 ). Most notably, the FDA designated MDMA-assisted psychotherapy a

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classes: classical psychedelics (e.g. Psilocybin, LSD, DMT), entactogens (e.g. MDMA), dissociative anaesthetics (e.g. Ketamine), and atypical hallucinogens (e.g. Ibogaine). Each of these different classes are characterised by unique pharmacological

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subscales. The MEQ-30 has demonstrated sensitivity in assessing the effects of a range of psychedelic compounds, including LSD ( Schmid & Liechti, 2018 ), MDMA ( Lyvers & Meester, 2012 ), psilocybin ( Barrett et al., 2015 ), ayahuasca ( Schenberg, Tofoli

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, DMT, and other substances, as seen in Table 1 . Table 1. Lifetime use of hallucinogens Hallucinogen Mean (SD) Median Range LSD 27.51 (104.99) 1.00 0–1,000 Mushrooms 25.64 (94.08) 5.00 0–1,000 MDMA 19.55 (82.7) 0.00 0–5 DMT 3.66 (11.21) 0.00 0

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