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Abstract

This study examines the impact of collaborating patterns on the R&D performance of public research institutions (PRIs) in Korea's science and engineering fields. For the construction of R&D collaborating networks based on the co-authorship data of 127 institutions in Scopus, this paper proposes four types of collaborations by categorizing network analyses into two dimensions: structural positions (density, efficiency, and betweeness centrality) and the relational characteristics of individual nodes (eigenvector and closeness centralities). To explore the research performance by collaboration type, we employ a data envelopment analysis window analysis of a panel of 23 PRIs over a 10-year period. Comparing the R&D productivities of each group, we find that the PRIs of higher productivity adhere to a cohesive networking strategy, retaining intensive relations with their existing partners. The empirical results suggest that excessively cohesive alliances might end up in ‘lock-in’ relations, hindering the exploitation of new opportunities for innovation. These findings are implicit in relation to the Korean Government's R&D policies on collaborating strategies to produce sustained research results with the advent of the convergence research era.

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This article attempts to estimate the total factor productivity (TFP) for 35 NUTS-2 regions of the Visegrad Group countries and to identify its determinants. The TFP values are estimated on the basis of the Cobb-Douglas production function, with the assumption of regional differences in productivity. The parameters of the productivity function were analysed with panel data, using a fixed effects model.

There are many economic variables that influence the TFP level. Some of them are highly correlated, and therefore the factor analysis was applied to extract the common factors – the latent variables that capture the common variance among those observed variables that have similar patterns of responses. This statistical procedure uses an orthogonal transformation to convert a set of observations of possibly correlated variables into a set of values of linearly uncorrelated variables called principal components. Each component is interpreted using the contributions of variables to the respective component.

I estimated a dynamic panel data model describing TFP formation by regions. An attempt was made to incorporate the common factors among the model’s explanatory variables. One of them, representing the effects of research activity, proved to be significant.

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Scientometrics
Authors:
Aashish Mehta
,
Patrick Herron
,
Yasuyuki Motoyama
,
Richard Appelbaum
, and
Timothy Lenoir

Abstract

The share of nanotechnology publications involving authors from more than one country more than doubled in the 1990s, but then fell again until 2004, before recovering somewhat during the latter years of the decade. Meanwhile, the share of nanotechnology papers involving at least one Chinese author increased substantially over the last two decades. Papers involving Chinese authors are far less likely to be internationally co-authored than papers involving authors from other countries. Nonetheless, this appears to be changing as Chinese nanotechnology research becomes more advanced. An arithmetic decomposition confirms that China's growing share of such research accounts, in large part, for the observed stagnation of international collaboration. Thus two aspects of the globalization of science can work in opposing directions: diffusion to initially less scientifically advanced countries can depress international collaboration rates, while at the same time scientific advances in such countries can reverse this trend. We find that the growth of China's scientific community explains some, but not all of the dynamics of China's international collaboration rate. We therefore provide an institutional account of these dynamics, drawing on Stichweh's [Social Science information 35(2):327–340, 1996] original paper on international scientific collaboration, which, in examining the interrelated development of national and international scientific networks, predicts a transitional phase during which science becomes a more national enterprise, followed by a phase marked by accelerating international collaboration. Validating the application of this approach, we show that Stichweh's predictions, based on European scientific communities in the 18th and 19th centuries, seem to apply to the Chinese scientific community in the 21st century.

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Abstract

This study empirically examines knowledge spillover in Visegrad Four (V4) countries, with an emphasis on global value chains (GVCs). Using patent statistics, the study aims to estimate the knowledge production function, including domestic and foreign knowledge stocks, and found that international knowledge spillover does not contribute much to the innovation of the local economy in the V4 countries because of three factors: i) multinational corporations' (MNCs) strategy to locate a low-cost production base, ii) MNCs' strategy to locate supporting (process, production or non-core product related) research and development (R&D) activities and iii) limited technology spillover effect from MNCs to local firms. Local firms in the V4 countries became dependent on the peripheral products and technologies provided by MNCs, and as a result, local R&D activities in the V4 countries were diverted from patentable innovation.

Open access

The paper is a contribution to the empirics of cross-country and cross-region literature on growth economics. Its aim is to assess the role of the global component in the development of European regions during the period 2000–2005. For this purpose a simple leader-follower model is set up in which all countries imitate the technology of the leader. The model is applied to cross-country data of the period 1870–2003 as corroboration and to the cross-region data. This approach makes it possible to rank the regions based on the rate of return of broadly understood capital and the impact of global forces as compared to local ones. Finally, a conclusion is drawn on the extent of the role of imitations in the growth of European regions.

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Abstract

This article examines the incentive structure underlying information transfers received by the three key players of the Triple Helix paradigm: universities, industry, and government research institutes (GRIs). For Korea and Taiwan, which are the cases under analysis here, such an empirical examination has not yet been conducted on a quantitative level. Using a unique dataset of survey responses from a maximum of 325 researchers based in Korean and Taiwanese universities, industry, and GRIs, this article shows that there are some significant differences between and within countries. Most importantly, policy interventions to promote university-industry-GRI interactions impact the degree to which specific information transfers are considered useful. In Korea, formal transfers are emphasized, while both formal and, in particular, informal transfers are emphasized in Taiwan.

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Abstract

Nanosciences and nanotechnologies are considered important for the development of science, technology and innovation, and the study of their characters can be a great help to the decisions of policy makers and of practitioners. This work is centred on the issue of the time relations between science and technology/innovation, and in particular on the speed of transfer of science-generated knowledge towards its exploitation in patenting. A methodology based on patent citations is used in order to measure the time lag between cited journal articles and citing patent, and thus the time proximity between the two steps. Keywords regarding nanotechnology/nanoscience items are searched in order to collect data useful for the analysis. Collateral measures, performed on another class of materials and on the spatial origin of citing/cited documents, help giving evidence of the peculiarity of the behaviour and on its nature. The most representative time lag between production of scientific knowledge and its technological exploitation appears being around 3–4 years.

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A number of megatrends are hitting the world of work at the same time. These include the digital revolution, globalisation and rapid population ageing, which are all having a profound impact on the types of jobs that are being created and how and where they are performed. This paper examines the challenges confronting the Visegrad Group of countries and the broad policy responses that will be required. It looks at the risk of job automation, how the structure of employment is changing by skill level and the rise of the gig economy. These changes will require a combination of policy responses in the areas of employment regulation, measures to facilitate labour mobility and lifelong learning, social protection and social dialogue. In many cases, this will not require a complete paradigm shift in policies but an adaptation and strengthening of existing polices.

Open access

mechanical mixtures of oxides, hydroxides and/or salts, requires high temperatures (1200–1400 °C) and is always preceded by the formation of various intermediate phases such as Ca 12 Al 14 O 33 (C 12 A 7 ) or CaAl 2 O 4 (CA) [ 4 – 6 ]. To avoid the

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Abstract

We develop a model of scientific creativity and test it in the field of rare diseases. Our model is based on the results of an in-depth case study of the Rett Syndrome. Archival analysis, bibliometric techniques and expert surveys are combined with network analysis to identify the most creative scientists. First, we compare alternative measures of generative and combinatorial creativity. Then, we generalize our results in a stochastic model of socio-semantic network evolution. The model predictions are tested with an extended set of rare diseases. We find that new scientific collaborations among experts in a field enhance combinatorial creativity. Instead, high entry rates of novices are negatively related to generative creativity. By expanding the set of useful concepts, creative scientists gain in centrality. At the same time, by increasing their centrality in the scientific community, scientists can replicate and generalize their results, thus contributing to a scientific paradigm.

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