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, organization, or government agency. This article uses scientometric methods as well as patent analysis to examine depth, breadth, and use of USDA research. Although the work presented here is descriptive without delving into policy questions of “what” and “why

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Introduction The analysis of full texts is moving ever further into the centre of attention in the field of patent analysis. Some methods, which allow for an analysis of patents on the basis of solitary concepts extracted from

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Scientometrics
Authors: Jean-Christophe Doré, Christian Dutheuil, and Jean-François Miquel

Abstract  

Only multidimensional analyses can provide overviews of complex relationships among many variables. We have previously illustrated the use of Correspondence Factor Analysis (CFA) in the analysis of publication profiles. In this article, we retrace our activity in patent analysis from the late 1970s to the present day and show how CFA is a particularly useful tool not only for describing the correlations between countries and technological fields but also for highlighting non-linear patenting time trends.

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This article is an attempt to identify the strengths and weaknesses of South African technology as they are manifested in patent analysis. Using the Technological Activity and Impact Indicators Database of CHI Research/Computer Horizons, Inc., we identified the South African Innovation profile for the period 1975–1988. Patents are analysed in their aggregate form in patent classes, Standard Industrial Classes and technologically similar classes. The result indicates a shift of activity from low to medium technology fields and a weakness in high technology fields. Comparison of scientific and technological activity also eveals that South Africa contributes five times as much in international science than it does in technology. Detailed analyses indicate the rise of a defence related industry in the country and reveal areas of emphasis and neglect.

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Abstract  

Technology assessment survey is nowadays a specific and scientific subject that any manufacture needs for increasing productivity. This function was initially reserved to experts of the studied field. But the increase of information volume has called for a change. Now, we need specialists of technology assessment survey which know about sophisticated methods to extract strategic information from downloaded data. We will explain how to build strategic information. We present here a new and original method of data analysis. This Factorial Relational Analysis is born after 15 years of IBM France mathematics research center works on qualitative data analysis. The method is based on Relational Analysis. The particularity of this method is to work with sparse matrices and to obtain the best classification without anya priori fixation of number of classes. Relational Analysis is used in other sectors than the analysis of matrices issued from downloaded data. For example it is also used in computational lexicography or in credit scoring or in any domain where classification is concerned. Here we choose to present an example of an application in patent analysis.

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Abstract  

We argue in favour of artificial neural networks for exploratory data analysis, clustering andmapping. We propose the Kohonen self-organizing map (SOM) for clustering and mappingaccording to a multi-maps extension. It is consequently called Multi-SOM. Firstly the KohonenSOM algorithm is presented. Then the following improvements are detailed: the way of namingthe clusters, the map division into logical areas, and the map generalization mechanism. Themulti-map display founded on the inter-maps communication mechanism is exposed, and thenotion of the viewpoint is introduced. The interest of Multi-SOM is presented for visualization,exploration or browsing, and moreover for scientific and technical information analysis. A casestudy in patent analysis on transgenic plants illustrates the use of the Multi-SOM. We also showthat the inter-map communication mechanism provides support for watching the plants on whichpatented genetic technology works. It is the first map. The other four related maps provideinformation about the plant parts that are concerned, the target pathology, the transgenictechniques used for making these plants resistant, and finally the firms involved in geneticengineering and patenting. A method of analysis is also proposed in the use of this computerbasedmulti-maps environment. Finally, we discuss some critical remarks about the proposedapproach at its current state. And we conclude about the advantages that it provides for aknowledge-oriented watching analysis on science and technology. In relation with this remark weintroduce in conclusion the notion of knowledge indicators.

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Scientometrics
Authors: Frizo Janssens, Wolfgang Glänzel, and Bart De Moor

Abstract  

Previous studies have shown that hybrid clustering methods that incorporate textual content and bibliometric information can outperform clustering methods that use only one of these components. In this paper we apply a hybrid clustering method based on Fisher’s inverse chisquare to integrate full-text with citations and to provide a mapping of the field of information science. We quantitatively and qualitatively asses the added value of such an integrated analysis and we investigate whether the clustering outcome is a better representation of the field by comparing with a text-only clustering and with another hybrid method based on linear combination of distance matrices. Our data set consists of almost 1000 articles and notes published in the period 2002–2004 in 5 representative journals. The optimal number of clusters for the field is 5, determined by using a combination of distance-based and stability-based methods. Term networks present the cognitive structure of the field and are complemented by the most representative publications. Three large traditional sub-disciplines, particularly, information retrieval, bibliometrics/scientometrics, and more social aspects, and two smaller clusters about patent analysis and webometrics, can be distinguished.

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Patent analysis 6 9 Web of Science 6 10 Bibliometric 5

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. Breitzman , T. Olivastro , D. Hamilton , K. 2001 The changing composition of innovative activity in the U.S.: A portrait based on patent analysis

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structures and to project technological trends by performing patent analysis (Archibugi and Pianta 1996 ; Basberg 1984 ; Basberg 1987 ; Chen et al. 2005 ; Gangulli 2004 ; Grupp et al. 2003 ). Since technology activities aim to solve economic, social

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