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Abstract  

Combustion profiles of coal-limestone-paper blends were studied using thermogravimetric/ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (TG/FTIR). The role of limestone in promoting the initial combustion of coal-paper blends and its ability to absorb sulphur oxides were examined.

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Abstract  

The combined thermogravimetric (TG) Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) techniques were used for studying the gaseous compounds evolved at thermooxidation of oil shale samples from different deposits (Estonia, Jordan, Israel). In addition to H2O and CO2as the major species, the formation and emission of CO, SO2, HCl and a number of organic species as methane, ethane, ethylene, methanol, formic acid, formaldehyde, chlorobenzene, etc. was determined. Differences in the absorbance of respective bands in FTIR spectra depending on the origin of oil shale and on the heating rate used were established.

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Abstract  

The world production of tyre waste amounts to 5106 ton year–1, 2106 tons of which are produced in Europe, but the final destination of nearly 65–70% of them is the landfill, despite the high added value materials lost and the consequent environmental impact. Treatments alternative to landfilling take into account reconstruction and reuse of the tyres or the matter and/or energy recovery by means of thermal treatment processes (incineration, gasification and pyrolysis). Among these, pyrolysis seems to be a promising and realistic alternative to attain the conversion of tyre waste into valuable and reusable products. Present work relates to experimental tests and results obtained for the study of tyre waste pyrolysis, conducted by means of thermo-gravimetric analysis (TG) of the material and the simultaneous determination, through Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and mass spectrometry (MS), of the decomposition products. The analysis of the volatile fraction allows to isolate, within the thermograms, the evolution of products referable to specific tyre components and therefore it suggests the application of a multi-component decomposition model. The kinetic model consequently developed agrees fairly well with the experimental data.

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Abstract  

The thermal degradation of the aliphatic polyamides 6 and 66 was investigated by means of the combined techniques TA-MS and TA-FTIR. The analyses were performed in three different devices. Sample mass ranged from 13 mg to 1 g and heating rates of 2.6 and 10 K min–1 were used in both air and nitrogen atmospheres. The most important decomposition products were caprolactam for PA 6 and cyclopentanone for PA 66. Evolution of NH3 and HCN was registered. The findings of the two hyphenated techniques led to the same results and complemented each other well. The evolved products were captured and analyzed off-line by GC/MS for further confirmation of results.

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Abstract  

A series of blends of polyoxymethylene (POM)/thermoplastic polyesterurethane (TPU) has been obtained by mechanical processing using a double screw extruder. The thermal stability and the thermal degradation profiles of POM/TPU blends were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TG) coupled on-line with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). It was found that incorporation of TPU into POM matrix resulted in increase of thermal stability of blends in comparison with pristine materials. The thermal degradation of TPU in inert gas atmosphere proceeds in two steps while the thermal degradation of POM is basically a one step process with a substage in a higher temperature range. The most abundant volatile products of the thermal degradation were identified; the possibly routes of their formation have been presented.

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Abstract  

The thermogravimetric analysis (TG) of two series of tri-block copolymers based on poly(L,L-lactide) (PLLA) and poly(ethyleneglycol) (PEG) segments, having molar mass of 4000 or 600 g mol–1, respectively, is reported. The prepared block copolymers presented wide range of molecular masses (800 to 47500 g mol–1) and compositions (16 to 80 mass% PEG). The thermal stability increased with the PLLA and/or PEG segment size and the tri-block copolymers prepared from PEG 4000 started to decompose at higher temperatures compared to those copolymers from PEG 600. The copolymers compositions were determined by thermogravimetric analysis and the results were compared to other traditional quantitative spectroscopic methods, hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry (1HNMR) and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR). The PEG 4000 copolymer compositions calculated by TG and by 1HNMR, presented differences of 1%, demonstrating feasibility of using thermogravimetric analysis for quantitative purposes.

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Abstract  

Identification and monitoring of gaseous species released during thermal decomposition of the title compound 1, Zn(tu)2Cl2, (tu=thiourea, (NH2)2C=S) have been carried out in flowing air atmosphere up to 800°C by both online coupled TG-EGA-FTIR and simultaneous TG/DTA-EGA-MS. The first gaseous products of 1, between 200 and 240°C, are carbon disulfide (CS2) and ammonia (NH3). At 240°C, an exothermic oxidation of CS2 vapors occurs resulting in a sudden release of sulphur dioxide (SO2) and carbonyl sulphide (COS). An intense evolution of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and beginning of the evolution of cyanamide (H2NCN) and isothiocyanic acid (HNCS) are also observed just above 240°C. Probably because of condensation and/or polymerization of cyanamide vapors on the windows and mirrors of the FTIR gas cell optics, some strange baseline shape changes are also occurring above 330°C. Above 500°C the oxidation process of organic residues appears to accelerate which is indicated by the increasing concentration of CO2, while above 600°C zinc sulfide starts to oxidize resulting in the evolution of SO2. All species identified by FTIR gas cell were also confirmed by mass spectrometry, except for HNCS.

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Abstract  

In order to improve poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) thermal stability, poly(vinyl butyral) (PVB) matrix and calcium carbonate nanoparticles were incorporated in plasticized PVC. Thermal properties of these composites were investigated by thermogravimetry analysis coupled with mass spectrometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). This approach highlighted the efficiency of both PVB and CaCO3 as HCl scavengers by postponing both the onset degradation temperature and the HCl release. Moreover, a synergetic effect was evidenced regarding the HCl release. Finally, kinetic parameters of the PVC first degradation stage, determined using the Flynn–Wall–Ozawa’s method, revealed a significant increase of the activation energy by incorporation of CaCO3 in the presence or not of PVB.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: Hanxu Li, Xiang-Zhong Shen, B. Sisk, W. Orndorff, Dong Li, Wei-Ping Pan, and J. Riley

Abstract  

Improved thermoanalytical methods have been developed that are capable of quantitative identification of various components of fly ash from a laboratory-scale fluidized bed combustion system. The thermogravimetric procedure developed can determine quantities of H2O, Ca(OH)2, CaCO3, CaSO4 and carbonaceous matter in fly ash with accuracy comparable to more time-consuming ASTM methods. This procedure is a modification of the Mikhail-Turcotte methods that can accurately analyze bed ash, with higher accuracy regarding the greater amount of carbonaceous matter in fly ash. In addition, in conjunction with FTIR and SEM/EDS analyses, the reduction mechanism of CaSO4 as CaSO4+4H2 ↔ CaS + 4H2O has been confirmed in this study. This mechanism is important in analyzing and evaluating sulfur capture in fluidized-bed combustion systems.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: N. Hamdi, Y. Feutelais, N. Yagoubi, D. de Girolamo, and B. Legendre

Abstract  

Indomethacin is known to exhibit polymorphism and solvates, the different forms obtained do not exhibit the same solubility and their bioavailabilities are different. It is of a prime importance to identify the various polymorphic and solvated forms. This study was carried out by: DSC (different scanning calorimetry), TG (thermogravimetric analysis), X-ray diffraction and thermomicroscopy. Seven solvates, with acetone, benzene, dichloromethane, tetrahydrofurane, propanol, chloroform and diethylether, were isolated and studied. Their formulae have been determined by thermogravimetric analysis and their X-ray patterns on powder are presented, by DSC their behaviour after desolvation is recorded, the temperature and the enthalpy of fusion are measured and by this way the form obtained is deduced.

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