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Summary

Formaldehyde in aquatic products was determined by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MEKC) after derivatization with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine. Separation was carried out at 25 °C and 25 kV, using a fused silica capillary (75 µ internal diameter; 50.5 cm effective length) and an ultraviolet detector set at 360 nm. The optimal background electrolyte was 20 mM sodium tetraborate and 20 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate at pH 9.0 with 3 s hydrodynamic injection at 30 mbar. Electrophoretic analysis took approximately 6.5 min. The correlation coefficient of the calibration curve was 0.999 over the concentration range 2.0–100.0 mg L−1, and the LOD and LOQ values were 0.57 and 1.89 µg mL−1, respectively. The recoveries were from 83.7% to 97.2% with steam distillation as the sample pretreatment method.

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Abstract  

A large group of radiopharmaceuticals includes complex radionuclide-ligand compounds which are very sensitive to the preparation conditions, as for example pH of reaction mixture, incubation time, temperature, molar ratio of reagents, etc. It is necessary to find the optimum condition for the formation of the radionuclide-ligand complex and to select the convenient analytical methods to determine the purity of the product. The preparation of radiopharmaceuticals labeled by rhenium-186 or rhenium-188 requires the addition of a reducing agent (commonly stannous chloride) to the reaction mixture in order to reduce perrhenate to a lower oxidation state which is capable of complex formation. For rhenium concentration up to approximately 10-5 mol/l, the molar excess of reduction agent over perrhenate is usually higher than 800 to reach the optimum yield of reduction and complexation (between 80-95%). Because of the potentially toxic effect of SnCl2 the reduction of perrhenate by stannous chloride was studied in detail to find the way for decreasing the concentration of reducing agent in the reaction mixture without significant lowering of the yield of perrhenate reduction. The reduction of perrhenate was determined by electromigration methods, i.e., capillary electrophoresis (CZE) and isotachophoresis (ITP), and thin-layer chromatography (TLC) with radiometric detection. The highest degree of reduction of perrhenate was obtained at pH 2 at perrhenate concentration ranging from 10-4 to 10-3 mol/l. The stability of reduced rhenium against a pH change from 2 to 5.5 (which corresponds to the pH close to physiological values) was tested as well. The influence of the presence of ascorbic acid as an antioxidant in the reaction mixture on the stability of the preparation against the pH change was determined. The stability of reduced rhenium against dilution of rhenium in the reaction mixture to the concentration suitable for the application in radiotherapy was also found out. The data acquired by capillary electrophoresis, isotachophoresis and thin-layer chromatography are comparable. Results obtained in these experiments were applied for the study of rhenium complexes with hydroxyethylidenediphosphonic acid (HEDP).

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Abstract  

Capillary electrophoresis has been used to separate metal ions characteristically associated with nuclear fission. Electrokinetic injections and transient isotachophoretic techniques were employed to increase sample loading and provide on-column concentration of the analyte. On-line concentration factors of approximately 700-fold have been achieved. Indirect-UV absorbance, on-line radioactivity, and indirect laser-induced fluorescence detection were used to monitor analytes of interest. The radioactivity detector consists of a plastic scintillator and photomultiplier tube with a 4π detection geometry. The efficiency was determined to be approximately 80%, enabling samples resident in the detector window for 0.1 minutes to be reliably assayed. Detection of152Eu and137Cs was achieved at the low nCi level. Indirect fluorescence was performed with quinine sulfate as the background fluorophor with α-hydroxysobutyric acid added as a complexing agent. An argon ion laser was used as the excitation source with a diode array detector. Limits of detection for La3+, Ce3+, Pr3+, Nd3+, Sm3+, and Eu3+ were determined to be in the sub — 10 ppb range (6–11 nM) with indirect laser-induced fluorescence detection.

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To evaluate the reliability and applicability of chromatographic methods for fingerprinting, and for obtaining comprehensive information from the fingerprint, several chromatographic techniques including high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and high-performance capillary electrophoresis (HPCE) have been used to obtain fingerprints of Pueraria Radix for the first time. The results showed that the relative standard deviation ( RSD ) of R F values, retention times, and peak-area percentages for samples of Pueraria lobata from different sources all perfectly satisfied the demands of the national standard, and HPTLC, HPLC, and HPCE have been successfully used for development of fingerprints of Pueraria Radix . When the chromatographic fingerprints established in this work were used to distinguish between authentic and fake Pueraria Radix by evaluation of similarity, different samples obtained from P. lobata and P. thomsonii were distinguished effectively. Although the three methods used for fingerprinting of Pueraria Radix were highly selective and reproducible, there were still significant reliability and applicability differences among the results obtained by use of these approaches, as is illustrated in this paper.

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I. Ali and H.Y. Aboul-Enein , Chiral Pollutants: Distribution, Toxicity and Analysis by Chromatography and Capillary Electrophoresis, John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, UK, 2004. Aboul-Enein H

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. 2000 903 211 217 D.N. Heiger , High Performance Capillary Electrophoresis — An Introduction, Hewlett

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Summary

Enantiomer separations have been one of the most important and, simultaneously, one of the most difficult to accomplish analytical (and technological) tasks, present at the top of separation scientists' agenda since the early sixties of the last century. Awareness of their importance has been awakened by an infamous case of the racemic drug thalidomide, a widely advertised sedative drug which had unexpected teratogenic activity in pregnant women that resulted in thousands of ‘flipper babies’ born in the late fifties and the early sixties in many countries around the world. Since that time, separation scientists have developed numerous methods for enantiomer separation, basically by use of gas chromatography (GC), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and capillary electrophoresis (CE). In this respect, planar chromatography has remained to a large extent an undervalued enantiomer separation technique, despite separation performance sufficient to separate a pair of enantiomers. The large number of GC, HPLC, and CE enantiomer separation strategies and methods developed are evidence that — once confronted with this particular and no doubt very important challenge — instrumental chromatographic techniques have lost if not face, then, to a large extent, their reputation as robust, universal, and efficient separation tools. In these circumstances, planar chromatography on silica gel seems a very promising and tempting alternative, basically because of the advantageous properties of microcrystalline silica gel and the 2D effective diffusion available only in planar chromatographic mode. Enhancement of the enantiomer separating power of the silica gel by simple mechanical impregnation with a properly chosen chiral selector, and additional coupling of this with efficient instrumental detection (e.g. densitometric, DAD, or mass spectrometric) can yield in a simple, robust, and universal tool for separation of enantiomers comparable with the long-established chromatographic enantiomer-separation techniques. In this mini review, favourable preconditions for silica-gel-based planar chromatographic separation of enantiomers which can elevate planar chromatography to the status of leading tool for separation of enantiomers are discussed. Further improvements which can enhance the enantiomer separation performance of chiral planar chromatography are also indicated.

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shorting the time for pyrethroid analysis. Recently, owing to its high resolving power, low solvent consumption, and simple sample pretreatment, capillary electrophoresis (CE) has been used as an attractive method for herbicides residue analysis

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chemometric method [ 19 ], and some chromatographic methods [ 20 – 23 ]. Regarding capillary electrophoresis (CE), the published reports were concerned with the determination and separation of BEN from other closely related ACE inhibitors [ 24 – 26

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techniques such as capillary electrophoresis [ 10 ], various electrochemical detections, near infrared (NIR), and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry are available for macrolide residues determination [ 11 ]. They have been applied for the determination

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