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Abstract  

Landfills and waste disposal sites are now routinely used for disposal of solid wastes and their incinerator ashes. Trace elements from these ashes are leached by rain and acid rain into nearby waterways providing a pathway for toxic elements to re-enter the food chain and the human life cycle. This paper examines the mechanism and the extent of leaching of 20 elements viz. Ag, Al, As, Ba, Br, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Fe, Hg, La, Sb, Sc, Ce, Sm, Ta, V, W and Zn. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used for the assay. The solid wastes studied are municipal refuse incinerator ash, coal fly ash, hospital incinerator ash, raw sewage sludge and its incinerator ash.

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Abstract  

The k 0-IAEA program developed for implementation of the single comparator instrumental neutron activation analysis method (k 0-INAA) has been used for elemental analysis with NIRR-1 irradiation and counting facilities. The existing experimental protocols for routine analysis based on the relative method were used to test the capability and reliability of the program for the analyses of geological and biological samples. The Synthetic Multi-element Standards (SMELS) types I, II and III recommended by the international k 0 user community for the validation of k 0-NAA method in NAA laboratories, furthermore, the following standard reference materials: NIST-1633b (Coal Fly Ash) and IAEA-336 (Lichen) were analyzed. Results obtained with the version 3.12 of the k 0-IAEA program were found to be in good agreement with the data obtained with the established relative method using WINSPAN-2004 software. Detection limits for elemental analysis of geological and biological samples with NIRR-1 facilities are provided.

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Abstract  

To order to examine experimentally the modified monostandard method implemented in the program MULTINAA, the FRM reactor in Garching (Germany) was calibrated and an INAA of a standard reference material NIST/SRMI1633b Coal Fly Ash was performed. The relative, thek 0-and the modified monostandard standardizations are applied. This work shows that for all of the examined 1/-nuclides the modified monostandard method provides identical analytical results to those determined by thek 0-method. For the non-1/ nuclides177Lu and152Eu the monostandard results are correct. Compared with the certified values of the analysed SRM1633b sample and also with the results of the relative method, it can be concluded that the modified monostandard method performed at our experimental conditions gives analytical results with accuracy better than 5%.

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Abstract  

A permanent and stand-alone neutron-induced prompt -ray analysis (PGA) system, usable at both cold and thermal neutron beam guides of JRR-3M has been constructed. The characteristics of the system, including neutron beam and -ray spectrometer were measured. Owing to the absence of fast neutrons and the low -ray background, analytical sensitivities and detection limits better than those in other PGA systems have been achieved. Analytical results of ten elements in Standard Reference Material of Coal Fly Ash agreed well with those obtained by other methods. Isotopic analysis of Ni and its application to accurate and precise determination of Ni by stable isotope dilution method were performed.

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Abstract  

A new Compton suppression system (CSS) for the gamma-ray spectrometer portion of the neutron activation analysis (NAA) was set up at the RPI/ITN. The pneumatic transfer system, SIPRA, for short-lived nuclides and cyclic irradiations was improved. A full calibration procedure of the CSS and SIPRA systems was performed. Two certified reference materials, NIST-SRM-1572 (Citrus Leaves) and NIST-SRM-1633a (Coal Fly Ash) were analyzed using the calibration factors. The CSS was instrumental in lowering the detection limits of Cr, Fe, Hg, Rb, Sr, Th and Zn by reducing background and/or spectral interference considerably. The analytical results were evaluated by comparison to the NIST certified values with deviations ranging from 2% to 8% for the above mentioned elements, except Zn ranging from 10% to 15% for biological and environmental samples, respectively.

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Abstract  

A review is presented on the use of neutron activation analysis (NAA) for the analyses of coal, oil shale, tar sands and petroleum. Fast NAA has been widely used for the determination of oxygen, and to a limited extent, of other elements such as nitrogen and silicon. Reactor NAA followed by instrumental counting, and in specific cases, after radiochemical separations is discussed. Thermal and epithermal neutrons are both used. Limited use of the252Cf source has been made in fuel analysis. A complementary technique to NAA is the photon-activation analysis with linear accelerator. It can determine over thirty elements, many of them not possible to do by NAA. Round-robin analyses of standard coal, fly ash, or oil shale samples indicate nuclear activation methods are comparable in accuracy and precision to X-ray fluorescence or atomic spectrometric methods for most elements.

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Abstract  

Different reference materials of environmental and geological origin, such as NBS 1633a (Coal Fly Ash, CFA), NBS 1645 (River Sediment, RS), GXR-2, and IAEA Soil-5, were investigated by short time activation analysis. The samples were analyzed in 5 replicates each between 100 to 150 mg, at neutron flux of 1.3 E 12 cm–2 s–1, using a high rate — high resolution gamma spectroscopy with a Loss Free Counting (LFC) System to correct the dead time and pile up to 500,000 cps. The results of the measurements indicate that the precision in determination of28Al,46mSc, and52V is between 1 to 6%. Different evaluation programs (i.e. ALCHEM, AKTAN, and ND-PEAK) were used to calculate the peak areas. The results indicate that, at lower counts, the statistical error of peak area calculation becomes more significant. Finally, Mössbauer spectroscopy was used to investigate the main Fe compounds present in some reference materials.

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Abstract  

Concentrations of 35 elements in Chinese Standard Rocks (GSR-1 to GSR-3) and Soils (GSS-1 to GSS-8) have been measured with INAA using the SLOWPOKE reactor. At the same time, the U. S. NBS reference standards: SRM-1632a (Bituminous Coal), SRM-1633a (Coal Fly Ash) and SRM-1646 (Estuarine Sediment) were also analyzed in order to cross-check the accuracy of this method. The results obtained indicate that the reproducibility of the method is satisfactory for most of the elements, namely the precision in general, is better than ±10%. Comparison of our values for NBS SRM-1632a, 1633a and 1646 with the certified values of NBS or with values cited in the literature indicates good agreement. The results were found to be accurate within ±10% error of the established results.

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Knowledge of occurrence and concentration of trace elements in dust particulates from and around industrial establishments is essential to know the source of pollutants and atmosphere quality. Dust particulates from two cement factories in the central part of India were analyzed for 5 minor (Cl, Fe, K, Mg, Na) and 23 trace elements (Ag, As, Ba, Br, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Dy, Eu, Ga, Hf, Hg, La, Mn, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sr, Th, W and Zn) by INAA and RNAA techniques. Significant differences have been observed for some toxic trace elements at different locations. Mn content is particularly high in all the dust particulates. Urban particulate (SRM 1648) and Coal fly ash (SRM 1633a) from NIST and Pond sediment (CRM No. 2) from NIES were also analyzed. The data have been analyzed and interpreted in terms of air quality at different locations inside the plant and two factories.

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Abstract  

The k 0-method of standardisation for instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) has been used at the OPAL research reactor to determine the elemental composition of three certified reference materials: coal fly ash (SRM 1633b), brick clay (SRM 679) and Montana soil (SRM 2711). Of the 41 certified elements in the three materials, 88 percent were within five percent of the certified values and all determinations were within 15 percent of the certified values. The average difference between the measured and certified values was 0.1 percent, with a standard deviation of 4.1 percent. Since these reference materials are widely used as standards in the analysis of archaeological ceramics by INAA, it has been concluded that the INAA facility in Australia is particularly well-suited for nuclear archaeometry.

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