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correlation analysis of ordered data by linked vector pattern. J. Jap. Statist. Soc. 6: 17-25. Graphical representation of correlation analysis of ordered data by linked vector pattern J. Jap. Statist

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European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
Authors: Ingrid E. Pereira, Kyssia P. Silva, Laura M. Menegati, Aimara C. Pinheiro, Elaine A. O. Assunção, Maria De Lourdes P. Araújo, Elfadil Abass, Malcolm S. Duthie, Ulrich Steinhoff, and Henrique C. Teixeira

manuscript; IEP, KPS and LMM performed the ELISA experiments, ROC curve and Spearman's correlation analysis; ACP, EAOA and MLPA carried out clinical CVL assessment and acquisition of serum samples; MSD, EA, UE performed recombinant proteins preparation. US

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In a long-term maize monoculture experiment set up on the active ingredient equivalence principle, changes in the yield components were investigated over a period of three years (2005–2007) as a function of the fertiliser treatments, and the values of the growth parameters HI, LAI, NAR and CGR were calculated using the classical method of growth analysis.The results indicated that optimum N supplies and the year effect made a substantial contribution both to the grain number per ear and to the thousand-kernel weight. In the course of correlation analysis, both Pearson’s correlation coefficient and multiple regression analysis demonstrated that the grain yield was in close positive correlation with these yield components, and with the maximum value of dry matter production and the harvest index. The two yield components explained 76% of the grain yield, and the effect of thousand-kernel weight was around 3.75 times as great as that of the grain number per ear (β = 0.721 vs. 0.192). On the basis of partial correlation analysis, the maximum value of total dry matter and the thousand-kernel weight were jointly responsible for around 60% of the variance in maize grain yield. Analysis using the “Enter” method showed that the two yield components explained 62% and 59% of the grain yield in wet years (R2 2005 = 62.3%; R2 2006 = 58.8%), while in the dry year neither the thousand-kernel weight nor the grain number per ear had a significant effect on the yield (R2 2007 = 4.5%).

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Present research on prebiotics focuses on either polysaccharides or polyphenols. This study compared the individual and combined impact of polysaccharide, quercetin, and gallic acid (GA) treatment on three human faecal strains. In vitro pure culturing and correlation analysis confirmed that the growth of both beneficial microbe B. longum subsp. longum (0.695, 0.205: R2, slope, respectively) and pathogenic C. perfringens (0.712, 0.085: R2, slope, respectively) increased due to polysaccharide treatment, and only GA treatment would inhibit C. perfringens (0.789, –0.165: R2, slope, respectively) growth. In vivo studies also revealed that genome copies of Bifidobacterium increased and C. perfringens decreased in the faeces, when a blend of the three nutrients rather than single polysaccharide or polyphenols were fed to rats. These data suggested that combined prebiotic treatment improved human faecal strain composition better than single treatment.

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β-Glucan content and β-glucanase activity of winter and spring barley cultivars grown under different environments were evaluated. There were significant differences in both β-glucan content and β-glucanase activity between analysed barleys. The results showed that, for all cultivars and locations, approximately 75% of β-glucan present in grains was degraded after malting, and that marked differences existed among winter and spring type of cultivars in malt β-glucan content. The correlation analysis of β-glucan content and malt quality parameters showed that malt β-glucan content was significantly positively correlated with viscosity and extract difference, and negatively with malt β-glucanase activity and friability. Regarding malt β-glucanase activity, significantly higher activity was found in spring cultivars in contrast to winter cultivars.

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Eight malting barley cultivars were used to investigate the cultivar and environmental effects on grain protein components and the relationships between protein fractions and β -amylase or β -glucanase activity. The results showed there was a great variation for three protein fraction (albumin, hordein and glutelin) contents over cultivars and locations, and a distinct difference in each protein fraction content between the locations for a given cultivars. Correlation analysis indicated that β -amylase activity was significantly correlated with three protein fraction contents and there was a negative correlation between glutelin content and β -amylase activity, but β -amylase activity positively correlated with albumin or hordein content. Furthermore, there was a significant positive correlation between total protein content and β -glucanase activity, and we found the hordein and glutelin content did not show correlated with β -glucanase activity but the albumin content was a significantly negative correlation with β -glucanase activity.

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Understanding the relationship between root system and yield related traits is an important objective in crop breeding programs. Canonical correlation analysis has been adopted to study the strength of association between the root morphological traits and grain yield components under low-moisture stress and well-watered conditions and to find the root morphological characters that have the largest influence on grain yield and its components under the two conditions. This study revealed that root to shoot length and weight ratios and root dry weight were had the largest effect on plant height, shoot dry weight and grain yield under well-watered condition. Under low moisture stress, maximum root length and root number were also important for improving grain yield and panicle length. The interrelationships clearly identified the importance of root to shoot length and weight ratios and root dry weight under well-watered condition. While, maximum root length and root number are a better combination under low moisture stress condition.

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The number of stomata and the concentration of macro- and microelements in four new winter wheat genotypes: Lenta, Lara, Perla and Fiesta were investigated in two localities in Croatia in the 1997/98 growing season. The stomata number per mm2 was determined by a standard method. N was established by the micro-Kjeldahl method, P spectrophotometrically and K, Ca, Mg, Zn, Cu, Fe and Mn by the AAS method. The interrelation of the investigated parameters was determined by multiple regression and correlation analysis. The results obtained indicate that the number of stomata per mm2 and the macro- and microelement concentrations depended on the genotype, the phenophase and the locality. A statistically significant correlation was found between the stomata number per mm2 and the macro- (N, P, K, Ca, Mg) and microelement (Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn) concentrations.

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Quality of wheat grain is a complex trait that depends mostly on the quantity and quality of protein and unified interactions between high molecular glutenin, gliadin, low molecular glutenins and abiotic stresses. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of genotype, environment and genotype × environment interaction on quality and some agronomic traits in wheat. Twenty divergent genotypes of winter wheat, per five from Serbia, Russia, France and Hungary were analysed in this paper. Variability was observed for quality (grain protein content and sedimentation) and agronomic traits (thousand-grain weight and test weight) in three growing seasons (2007/08, 2008/09 and 2009/10). Genotypes were statistically analysed [basic statistical parameters, AMMI biplot for the content of protein, correlation and Principal Component Analysis (PCA)] in order to assess the impact of different growing seasons on selected cultivars. AMMI analysis determined that 2008/09 was very significant for most of the genotypes. The Hungarian cultivar GK-Zugoly had the highest grain protein content (14.4%). Correlation analysis showed different relationships between the traits. PCA indicated that the total variation reflected the first two components represented with 80%, but the first principal component was more important. Results of this paper indicate that the varieties MV-Csardas and Pamyati Kalinenko can be used as a good source of genetic material for future breeding program for agro-ecological conditions of Vojvodina.

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Wheat is the second most important field crop on arable lands in Hungary and Croatia. Yield variations between years are high in both countries. In the short term these variations are mainly the result of the weather parameters specific to individual growing seasons. The aim of this study was to compare variations in winter wheat yields over years in four counties in Hungary and five in Croatia, with the emphasis on the impact of rainfall and mean air temperature regimes. The results showed that rainfall in spring was most decisive for winter wheat yields. The highest winter wheat yields were obtained when the rainfall in the winter half-year ranged from 230–260 mm and the spring rainfall from 180–230 mm. The precipitation in the growing season is much higher in eastern Croatia than in eastern Hungary, so water shortage is a more pronounced environmental problem for wheat in Hungary. This is probably why wheat yields were lower in eastern Hungary than in eastern Croatia in the period tested. Pearson correlation analysis on the yields and meteorological data between 1990 and 2009 revealed a positive correlation between spring rainfall and the yield, and a negative correlation between spring temperature and the yield. The results proved that yields were determined not only by weather conditions, but by many other factors (crop rotation, tillage, fertilization, variety, crop protection, etc.).

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