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Summary Visual images do have a constitutive role in the formation of culture and as a consequence in rendering cultural stereotypes. Since the communication by ways of pictures became prevalent and overwhelming with the easy distribution of pictures by “mechanical reproduction' (W. Benjamin), it is important to be aware of the nature of images and their relationship to verbal signs. I do share W. J. T. Mitchell's idea that “speech-acts are not medium specific', thus pictures just like words do possess semiotic power; that is they do take part in meaning-making (Bal), as well as in the production and the maintenance of culture, cultural identity and cultural memory. The importance of this recognition lies in the fact that Man is not only the producer, but also the product of culture; since this production is not exclusively linguistically based. Therefore, this paper aims at the examination of the relation of visual images and a text in the transmission of Hungarian stereotypes. I intend to carry out this in a medium that traditionally belongs to the category of “popular culture', yet its status was highly controversial in the time of its production in Hungary. This visual medium is that of the panorama, and the object of my query is Árpád Feszty's famous panorama, entitled “The arrival of the Magyars'. The painting carries its importance in many respects: it is not only an ideal and idealised “representation' of the settling of Hungarian tribes, but more importantly the veiled illustration of Mór Jókai's drama entitled Levente. My paper thus raises questions of the relation of the visual and verbal, of popular and high culture, and of the influence of national identity through verbal and visual imagery.

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Magyar történelmi témák 18. századi bécsi festői: adatok Wenzel Pohl munkásságához és az August Rumelnek tulajdonított mohácsi csata-képhez

18th century viennese painters of Hungarian historical themes: addenda to Wenzel Pohl’s work and the battle of mohács painting attributed to August Rumel

Művészettörténeti Értesítő
Júlia Papp

Media news made the name of Wenzel Pohl known in Hungary in the early 2000s, for the two large history paintings (The Battle of Mohács, Saint Stephen converting the Hungarians to the christian faith), which had cropped up in the art trade and which were purchased by the Hungarian state and deposited in the Hungarian embassy in Vienna, were attributed to him. Although more recent research has proposed that the painter of the cycle once consisting of six pieces was most probably August Rumel and not Pohl, it is worth knowing of Pohl’s artistic activity irrespective of the Hungarian relevance, too, because his person is gradually fading out of art historiography – for example, his name is missing from the 96th volume of the Saur Allgemeines Künstlerlexikon published in 2017.

The best-known Pohl portraits are the ones he painted of the noted Jesuit astronomer, mathematician and physicist Miksa Hell. A full-figure portrait shows the scientist in traditional Sami costume during his research trip to the North, and we know of a portrait showing Hell is a monk’s frock. His engraved copies of paintings in the Viennese imperial collection, real forerunners to the representative 19th century album of prints presenting the collection, probably belong to a series. In the cycle of paintings about the coronation of Joseph II as Holy Roman Emperor (Frankfurt, 1765) he was assigned the painting of architectural details, which is confirmed by the fact that he was sent on a study trip to Frankfurt to make drawn sketches of the venues of the event. After the representative painting of Martin van Meytens he made a small-scale version of the group portrait of Maria Theresa and her family. His chef d’oeuvre is the representative painting series showing the events of the coronation of Maria Theresa in Pozsony in 1741 painted for the Hungarian court chancellery in Vienna. He painted it with Franz Messmer in the second half of the 1760s. In contrast, the three portraits of monarchs in Riesensaal in Innsbruck so far attributed to him by researchers were actually painted by Jakob Kohl.

The other part of the paper contributes a few new viewpoints to the examination of the painting about the battle of Mohács earlier attributed to Pohl. In addition to contemporaneous woodcuts of the tragic battle of 1526 in news-letters and pamphlets in German, to 16th century Turkish miniatures, and diverse 16–18th century European manuscript and book illustrations, a ceiling fresco in Garamszentbenedek and several large paintings – including Rumel’s work – also conjured up the battle in the 18th century. Since in the nation’s historical consciousness and cultural memory the battle of Mohács did not acquire its symbolic, mythic position represented to this day before the 19th century, the two works of art were way ahead of their time in anticipating the salient position of the tragic event, because, unlike, for example, István dorffmaister’s late 18th century pictures ordered in Mohács, they show the battle as a fatal even in the history of the entire nation. on the other side, by the terminating piece of the series ordered for the Transylvanian court chancellery being the battle of Mohács, the client departed from the 18th century imperial, dynastic outlook which presented as positive parallels to the battle of Mohács and the capture of Szigetvár by the Turks the victorious battles of the late 17th century liberating war led by the Habsburg Empire: the second battle of Mohács and the recapture of Szigetvár, partly as examples of divine justice and partly as legitimation of the Habsburg Empire’s territorial expansion “earned with blood”. It is noteworthy that the right side of central scene of Rumel’s Battle of Mohács resembles the composition of leonardo da Vinci’s Battle of Anghiari surviving in copies only. It is presumable that the renaissance battle scenes served as a model example for the painter.

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: Held, D. – Thompson, J. B. (eds.): Social theory of modern societies: Anthony Giddens and his critics . Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Tucker, K. H. (1997): Aesthetics, Play and Cultural Memory: Giddens and Habermas

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Cultural History, and the creator of the comprehensive catalogue of Hungarian legends, published in 2018, which, with its 12 volumes, is an outstanding contribution to the exploration of historical and cultural memory as preserved in epic oral traditions

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belonging to cultural memory that have given rise to a community of fate; grievances suffered as a result of cultural otherness in surrounding settlements, etc.), while it has become far more important to elevate the balanced functioning of social

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Transfer and export in architectural history •

Three case studies from the Carpathian Basin

Transzfer és export az építészettörténetben •

Három esettanulmány a kárpát-medence területéről

Transfer und export in der baugeschichte •

Drei fallstudien aus der pannonischen tiefebene
Építés - Építészettudomány
Zsuzsanna Emília Kiss
Gergő Máté Kovács
, and
Martin Pilsitz

. Baku , Eszter – Kovács , Máté Gergő : A kulturális emlékezet rétegei. Oszmán épületek emlékezete Magyarországon [The Layers of Cultural Memory. The Memory of Ottoman

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cultural memory [ 3 ]. The memory of the city is not just a mere intangible existence, but also not only the old streets and alleys of the “old and dying years”. It can be a well-preserved, magnificent and magnificent ancient building, or an

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-regeneration. 3.2 Arts space The city provides both material exchanges for its citizens and historical and cultural memory for the public. In urban space, art plays an extremely important role, and it is an art that affects the masses

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-historical schemes and mythological orA biblical allusions are also important (e.g., the abduction of Ganymede, the relationship between Achilles and Patroclus, the story of David and Jonathan), as these are also vivid role possibilities in cultural memory ( Woods

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strategies as well as their impact on landscape use, the communicative and cultural memory of communities, biographical narratives, narrative behavior, and traditions in the broad sense. These questions have only been examined sporadically in ethnographic

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