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A carcinoid tumour in the liver of a red deer hind (Cervus elaphus) is described. Macroscopically, the liver was considerably enlarged with multifocal, firm, yellow and red nodular neoplastic masses, which were histopathologically diagnosed as hepatic carcinoids. The diagnosis was confirmed by modified Grimelius staining, which demonstrated numerous small argyrophilic granules in the cytoplasm of neoplastic cells, and by immunohistochemistry. The neoplastic cells gave a strong positive reaction for neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and synaptophysin and a weak positive reaction for chromogranin A. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a hepatic carcinoid in red deer.

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Resistance in different genotypes of tomato to Meloidogyne incognita were studied using screening and molecular studies. Lycopersicon peruvianum , a wild species of tomato showed resistance reaction to Meloidogyne incognita under artificial screening infection studies. L. peruvianum , showed least penetration rate of one nematode. In susceptible wild species L. pimpinellifolium , varieties and hybrid, feeding sites were characterized by giant cells containing granular cytoplasm and many hypertrophied nuclei. In L. peruvianum , the vascular tissues were not disturbed and epidermal layer showed lignin bodies which have accumulated and inhibited the nematodes into the roots. RT-PCR analysis to detect presence of resistance (R) gene showed a 877 bp amplicon present only in L. peruvianum . Sequence analysis of the partial cDNA from L. peruvianum showed considerable homology with already available disease resistance gene against Meloidogyne incognita . These results have important consequences in terms of transformation strategies to develop root knot nematode resistant transgenic plants.

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Adult male albino rats were fed on stored wheat grains (Triticum aestivum L.) treated with malathion and spinosad at both 8 and 16 ppm for 90 consecutive days to evaluate their hepatic and renal toxicity. The activity of serum acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was decreased in rats treated with the higher concentration of both tested pesticides. Biochemical parameters of liver functions [i.e., aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), acid phosphatase (ACP) activity, as well as total protein, albumin, bilirubin and cholesterol levels] were severely affected especially at higher concentration. Malathion and spinosad elevated the activity of ALT, AST, ALP and ACP in rats treated with the higher concentration. Also, total and direct bilirubin levels increased in rats treated with the higher concentration of both pesticides. On the contrary, both pesticides decreased total protein and albumin levels in treated rats in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, malathion was found to be hyperglycemic. Kidney function parameters (i.e., urea and creatinine levels) were increased in treated rats in a concentration-dependent manner. The above mentioned effects were supported by histopathological examination of liver and kidney tissues. The obtained results indicated also that malathion was able to cause a more pronounced hepato- and renal toxicity in rats than spinosad.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
D. Das
,
S. Tamuly
,
M. Das Purkayastha
,
B. Dutta
,
C. Barman
,
D.J. Kalita
,
R. Boro
, and
S. Agarwal

Abstract

Green tea or its concentrated extract is coveted for its health promoting catechin-like polyphenols, especially epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). However, its amicable efficacy is now being doubted considering the recent occurrence of several cases of hepato- and nephrotoxicity, after the ingestion of EGCG-fortified (≥85–90%) nutritional supplements. Therefore, the current study was carried out to ascertain the effect of green tea leaves extract (GTE), having low EGCG content (73.8%), on liver and kidney functions of male Wistar rats using various in vivo experiments and in vitro radical scavenging activity. In terms of acute toxicity, GTE was observed to be safe when delivered at a dosage of 2000 mg kg−1 body weight (BW). Oral delivery of GTE for 28 days at a concentration of 200 mg kg−1 BW/day did not trigger sub-acute toxicity to the liver and kidneys, as per serum biochemical analyses and histopathological examination. In contrast, GTE counteracted the effects of carbon tetrachloride (a potent hepato-degenerative compound) on the liver. Furthermore, increase in high-density lipoprotein―cholesterol with concomitant lowering of serum triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein―cholesterol were noticed in GTE-treated rats. These findings suggest that low EGCG containing GTE, with appreciable antioxidant activity (IC50 = 53.18–71.28 μg mL−1), can serve as a hepatoprotective, hypolipidemic, and hypocholesterolemic ingredient.

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Introduction

Elevated oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been proposed as one of the major risk factors in pathophysiology of several organ damages including liver tissue.

Materials and methods

In this study, we evaluated the effect of swimming training on hepatic oxidative markers, SIRT1 gene expression, and histological alterations in T2DM. Twenty-eight male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into four groups (N = 7): control, exercise, diabetic, and diabetic + exercise. One week after the induction of T2DM, rats were subjected to swimming (60 min/5 days a week) for 12 weeks. At the end of the experiment, oxidative markers (SOD, GPx, CAT activities, and MDA level) and SIRT1 gene expression were measured in the liver by special kits and RT-PCR, respectively. Hematoxylin–eosin statins were used for histological alterations.

Results

Swimming training attenuated MDA levels and enhanced SOD, GPx, and CAT activities in the liver of diabetic animals. Furthermore, swimming training restored the expression of SIRT1 in T2DM. Histopathological finding of the hepatic tissue confirmed a protective role for swimming training in diabetic rats.

Conclusion

Our findings indicate that swimming training attenuates oxidative stress probably by upregulation of SIRT1 in the liver of type 2 diabetic rats.

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In the past few years a characteristic, often fatal disease associated with cutaneous lesions and nephropathy has been observed in several large pig herds and household pig stocks of Hungary. In addition to general symptoms and slight fever in several cases, the disease was characterised by cutaneous lesions occurring mostly on the ventral part of the thorax and abdomen, on the extremities and ear pinnae, and in the nasal and perianal region. In the acute phase, circumscribed hyperaemic, confluent, crust-covered areas were seen. Histological examination revealed necrosis of the epithelial layer and lympho-histiocytic vasculitis in the corium, here and there accompanied by thrombosis and fibrinoid degeneration. The kidneys were pale brown and harder to tear, with cortical petechiae in most cases. By histopathological examination, intra- and extracapillary glomerulonephritis accompanied by fibrinoid exudation was seen. Some of the renal tubules were dilated, others were atrophied, and in advanced cases proliferation of the intertubular connective tissue and inflammatory cell infiltration also occurred. Necrotic vasculitis was also observed in some cases. By immunohistochemical examination IgA, IgG and IgM, and in a single case C3 belonging to the complement system were observed in the pathologically changed skin areas and kidneys. By polymerase chain reaction (PCR), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV-2) was detected. Bacteriological and serological examinations did not reveal infections of aetiological importance.

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The aim of the present study was to evaluate the presence of lymphocytes and granulocytes in different stages of embryonic development and on the first posthatching day. The lymphocytes present in the bursa of Fabricius and thymus were evaluated by histological analysis of the yolk sac, bursa of Fabricius, thymus, liver and bone marrow of 100 chicken embryos divided into groups and treated with: (I) Marek’s disease vaccine as viral antigen, (II) Marek’s disease vaccine plus lymphokines, (III) lymphokines, and (IV) vaccine diluent. Group V was not treated. Samples were taken on days 14, 17 and 20 of incubation and on the first posthatching day. An increase in the number of epithelial matrix as precursors of lymphoid follicles was observed in the bursa of Fabricius of embryos inoculated with lymphokines compared to embryos in all the other groups (p < 0.05). In addition, a higher amount of granulocytes was found in the yolk sac and liver of embryos inoculated with lymphokines than in the embryos of all other groups (p < 0.05). In the bone marrow, no significant difference was observed among the treated groups concerning the amount of granulocytes. The results suggest that administration of antigens or protein molecules at an early stage of embryonic development increases the presence of granulocytes in the liver and granulopoiesis in the yolk sac, and also increases the number of epithelial matrixs in the bursa of Fabricius.

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European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
Authors:
Gangadhararao Appana
,
Dipankar Das
,
Maroudam Veerasami
,
Ramachandran Lakshmikanthan Senthilkumar
,
Munishkumar Durishetty
,
B. Ramalakshmi
,
Vijay Bahekar
,
Falguni Mukherjee
,
Dev Chandran
,
P. Uday Kumar
,
B. Sesikeran
, and
Dr. Villuppanoor Alwar Srinivasan Ph.D.

Abstract

A male cattle calf was detected as subclinically and naturally infected with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) by a series of antemortem and postmortem tests. The MAP infection was identified by strong antibody and cell-mediated immune (CMI) response by a commercial ELISA kit and an intradermal Johnin test, respectively, in the initial antemortem examination. The antemortem status of the calf was further confirmed by MAP-specific interferon gamma (IFN-γ) response. For detection of IFN-γ response, MAP-specific IFN-γ release assays (IGRAs): (a) immuno capture ELISA (IC-ELISA) and (b) ELISPOT was employed. In addition, the presence of intracellular cytokine IFN-γ was detected by flow cytometry. For all cytokine assays, MAP-specific recombinant antigens HSP65 and 35 kDa were employed to overcome the poor sensitivity and specificity resulting from the use of Johnin, the crude protein purified derivative of MAP. Postmortem examination of the MAP-infected/suspected cattle calf did not reveal any pathognomonic gross lesions in the gastro-intestinal tract. Histopathological examination of multiple organs showed the presence of epithelioid cells/macrophages and edematous lesions in the mesenteric lymph nodes suggestive of MAP; however, no granulomas were observed in the intestinal tract. The necropsy samples of rectum and mesenteric lymph nodes were positive for isolation of MAP by culture in the BACTEC™ MGIT™ 960 system, and acid fast bacilli were demonstrated by fluorescence microscopy confirming the infection. Due to differential and complex expression patterns of MAP antigens reported in literature, a combination of assays such as those based on IGRAs and antibody detection is essential. Therefore, the current experimental evidence confirms the efficacy of the approach adopted. However, further studies will be needed to understand the optimal combination MAP-specific antigens for use in IGRAs or antibody assays that can be used for detecting MAP infection in every stage of the disease.

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Background: We compared the diagnostic validity of three non-invasive tests of fibrosis: age to platelet index, aspartate transaminase to platelet ratio index and aspartate transaminase to alanine transaminase ratio to histology fibrosis stage among Africans chronically infected with the hepatitis B virus. Methods: Ninety treatment-naive chronic hepatitis B patients were subjected to liver biopsy. Excluded from the study were patients with HCV and HIV co-infection, and significant alcohol consumption. Staging was performed using the Metavir system, whereas AST, ALT, and platelet count were determined using manual methods, within 4 weeks of liver biopsy. Results of fibrosis score and markers of fibrosis were compared using EPI Info 2005 version 3.3.2. Results: The mean age of the study population was 31.8 ± 8.9 years. Fibrosis stages and AAR, API and APRI scores were positively correlated, respective correlation coefficients being 0.48, 0.48 and 0.22 ( p %lt; 0.0001). Their positive predictive values were 52% (AAR), 63% (API) and 54% (APRI), with sensitivities of 60, 11 and 96%, respectively. The diagnostic accuracy of AAR for cirrhosis was 100%. Conclusions: Non-invasive fibrosis markers are not as sensitive for diagnosing significant fibrosis in chronic hepatitis B compared to hepatitis C patients and might have a limited utility for use in hepatitis B endemic populations.

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Orvosi Hetilap
Authors:
Márta Kovács
,
Gábor Veres
,
László Szőnyi
,
Antal Dezsőfi
,
Hedvig Bodánszky
,
György Illyés
,
Zsuzsa Schaff
, and
András Arató

deficient smooth muscle alpha-actin. Histopathology, 1992, 21 , 535–542. Kamm M. A. Intestinal pseudo-obstruction with deficient smooth muscle alpha

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