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A three years (2008, 2009, and 2011) open field experiment was conducted to study the effect of growing methods (organic and conventional) on the tomato yield components (Brix°, carbohydrate, organic acid, lycopene, and total polyphenols). Significantly higher Brix°, carbohydrate-, and lycopene content was found in conventional production. In spite of this, total phenolic content of tomato fruits was significantly higher in organic production. Our experiences show that it is probable, that the techniques used in the cultivation of organic crops — no artificial nutrients — could activate natural defence mechanisms in tomato plants, by increasing content of total polyphenol in the fruits.

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A two-year open field experiment was carried out to study the effect of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrogensupply on fruit components of tomato. Korall determinate growth type processing tomato cultivar plants were planted and cultivated for the entire growing season in open top chambers (OTC) in years 2007 and 2008. Compared with the control (350 ppm) CO2 enrichment (700 ppm) significantly decreased the lycopene content at all three harvest dates in both years, but higher supply of nitrogen and 700 ppm CO2 resulted in significantly higher lycopene values in second year. Elevated nitrogen concentration combined with 700 ppm CO2 significantly increased the Brix, sugar content, total phenolics, and total antioxidant status (TAS) of tomato fruits.

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Enzyme-assisted extraction of carotenoids from tomato peels of the Bulgarian cultivar “Stela”, one of the most widely used cultivars by the canning industry, was examined in this study. The carotenoid content in raw tomato peels was established by HPLC analysis. A two-step protocol was followed: the tomato peels were first treated with enzymes and then extracted by the use of acetone as a solvent for 30 min at 20±1 °C and solid/liquid ratio of 1:30. The total carotenoid, lycopene, and β-carotene extraction yields were increased by the use of pectinase, cellulase, endo-xylanase, and proteinase enzymes in comparison with the non-enzyme-treated samples. The increase in the extraction yield was affected by the enzymes used, the enzyme concentration, the pretreatment time and temperature. Maximum total carotenoid (55.15 mg/100 g d.w.), β-carotene (35.85 mg/100 g d.w.), and lycopene (15.44 mg/100 g d.w.) extraction yields were obtained in peels pretreated with mixed cellulase (100 U g−1) and endo-xylanase (400 U g−1) for 4 h at 50 °C. Carotenoid recovery by mixed cellulolytic and hemi-cellulolytic enzyme pretreatment of tomato peels is a good approach, which can be used for waste utilization.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
L.B.S. Sabino
,
M.L.C. Gonzaga
,
D.J. Soares
,
A.C.S. Lima
,
J.S.S. Lima
,
M.M.B. Almeida
,
P.H.M. Sousa
, and
R.W. Figueiredo

This study is aimed at performing the determination of bioactive compounds, antioxidant activity, and the identification of the minerals in the flours produced with the tropical fruit peels of mango, papaya, melon, and pineapple. The results showed that the papaya peel flour has the highest amount of ascorbic acid and lycopene when compared with the other studied flours. The mango peel flour has a high content of total extractable polyphenols and a high antioxidant activity. Regarding the mineral content, the by-product of melon stood out with 523.24±26.12 mg/100 g of potassium, 104.15±3.52 mg/100 g of calcium and 6.62±0.30 mg/100 g of iron. The flours prepared with mango, papaya, melon, and pineapple peels are potential sources of bioactive compounds and minerals, also presenting good antioxidant activity, being, therefore, recommended to be used in food products to improve the nutritional quality of the product.

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The investigations carried out so far on high pigment tomatoes are confined to their nutritional aspects only. We present the comparative results of the first study on the kinetics of changes in chemical and sensory quality attributes in puree prepared from two colour mutants [dark green (dg) and old gold crimson (og c)] and seven normal tomato genotypes during storage. Puree of mutant tomatoes BCT-115 and BCT-119, carrying dg and og c genes, showed the less significant changes in TSS (7.52 and 6.02 °Brix), acidity (3.16 and 3.05%), pH (4.04 and 4.03), total sugar (12.4 and 11.13%), ascorbic acid (20.74 and 19.69 mg/100 g), lycopene (7.78 and 542 mg/100 g), and β-carotene (3.08 and 2.26 mg/100 g) during two months storage at 25 °C. Nevertheless, puree prepared from Berika and BCT-115 (dg) had higher colour (7.63 and 7.13), taste (7.4 and 7.37) and flavour (7.3 and 7.37) sensory scores during two months of storage at 25°C. These results provide new data on the effect of genotypes on the stability of quality for storage of tomato puree and insist on the utilization of these genotypes for breeding new processing cultivars in the near future.

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Pigments, such as carotenes, xanthophylls and chlorophylls, were extracted from both vegetables and their industrial products by using a 2:1 (v/v) dichloromethane/methanol solution. To separate and quantify the components in the extraction mixture, a HPLC analysis on reversed phase C30 column and binary gradient, made of methanol/water solution and dichloromethane, was employed. This gradient appears to have some advantages over other reported methods, which utilize reversed phase C30 column, in terms of resolution and analysis time. The linearity range of the detection response, the chromatographic resolution of a standard mixture constituted of lutein, zeaxanthin, trans-ß-apo-8?-carotenal, ß-cryptoxanthin, chlorophyll-b, ?-carotene, chlorophyll-a, ?-carotene, lycopene and the conditions for the complete extraction of those substances from the vegetable matrix were investigated. Both retention time and peak area reproducibility showed an average variation coefficient of about 2% for all the analyzed compounds. As a consequence of the good chromatographic separation of chlorophylls from carotenoids, sample saponification was found unnecessary when analyzing green vegetable products. Finally, to illustrate the applicability of the method, the presence of carotenoid esters in tomato and orange products was examined.

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, carotenoids (lycopene, β-carotene) are of special interest due to their role in reduction of the onset of several types of cancer ( G iovannucci , 1999 ) and cardiovascular ( G ammone et al., 2015 ) or neurodegenerative diseases ( R ao & R ao , 2007 ). In

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. , B rutnell , T. , K andianis , C.B. , …. & B uckler , E.S. ( 2008 ): Natural genetic variation in lycopene epsilon cyclise tapped for maize biofortification . Science , 319 , 330 – 333

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functional substances. Solubilisation of phytochemicals like curcumin, resveratrol, carotenoids such as lycopene, beta-carotene, lutein, and zeaxanthin using nanoemusions was reported ( Huang et al., 2010 ). Bioavailability of essential oils can be increased

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increase their oxidative stability during a 45-day storage at 4 °C. They observed significant decrease in redness (a*) of samples containing norbixin and lycopene, which can be attributed to the partial decomposition of those pigments while exerting their

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