. : 2005 . Impact of nutrient supply, sowing time and plant density on maize yield . Acta Agronomica Hungarica. 53 . 1 : 59 – 70 . 16. Sárvári M. : 2009 . A
The topic of this paper is to examine the production and power-plant utilization of biomass and waste-derived combustibles with the aim of recovering energy and heat. During biomass production the simultaneous composting of municipal solid waste and sewage sludge can provide the nutrient supply of the energy forests that are planted as biomass raw material. In the controlled decomposition process (fast composting) gas development and emission can be controlled, the amount of waste that is permanently deposited can be minimized and its harm to the environment can be reduced significantly.
The relationship between the yield, chlorophyll content and leaf area index of five winter wheat genotypes was investigated in two different growing seasons on chernozem soil. The results suggest that the genotype and the nutrient supply had a considerable influence on both the yield and the physiological traits, while the growing season modified the parameters in a significant manner. The results proved that the chlorophyll content and leaf area index had a direct influence on the yield; varieties developing larger leaf area and leaf chlorophyll content had higher yields even in different seasons, but the yield was significantly influenced by the decline in the chlorophyll content after flowering. It could be concluded that studying the chlorophyll content and leaf area values simultaneously during the more important phenological phases (especially from flowering to the early period of grain-filling) makes it possible to predict the yield from the trends.
Hungarian red clays are the result of soil formation from previous geologic periods. They were spread over areas which were dry during the Tertiary Period and were not covered by sediments. The climate of the Quaternary Period eroded them, so that today they can only be found in areas where they were protected against degradation or where their thickness and resilience could withstand the forces of erosion. Thus, red clays are fossil or relic products of soil formation. Since both their water regime and nutrient supply differ from soils formed in the Holocene, their economic importance is far from negligible; vineyards, forests and arable cultivation can be found on these areas. Their influence may be seen in more extensive territories where they were washed away, settled and became mixed with other soils.
1976 Izsáki, Z. 2000. The application of diagnostic plant analysis in the system of nutrient supply of sugar beet. Cukoripar,. 53,4. 141
Botanical changes were examined on a ten-year-old semi-natural grassland established using mixtures with high species diversity. The mixtures contained seventeen wild flowers of natural origin together with two leguminous and seven grass species or varieties. Three different mixtures were arranged in three replications. The grassland management system was non-intensive (without nutrient supply or irrigation). A survey involving cover assessment revealed nine residual species from among the twenty-six originally sown. The main question addressed in the study was whether there was any connection between the ecological properties of the habitat and the ecological needs of the residual species and it was concluded that all the residual species had similar temperature, water balance and soil requirements. It could be seen that the present plant association gave a good reflection of the results of soil analysis. This suggests that soil analysis should be carried out before sowing new species-rich grasslands in order to compile a mixture suited to the nature of the habitat.
agricultural production is a basic, traditional constituent of the Hungarian economy. An importance question nowadays is how the land can be cultivated and agricultural goods produced under the conditions of sustainable development. From the plant nutrition point of view the establishment of an environment-friendly fertilizer recommendation system is essential if sustainable development is to be achieved. Most experts agree that this type of fertilizer recommendation system is able to fulfil the growing demands of a growing population, while keeping the environment in good condition for the next generations. The experts also agree that fertilizer application could not be replaced widely with organic farming alone. An environmentally friendly fertilizer recommendation system has to be sensitive enough to respond to the effects of different conditions, e.g. great spatial variability of soil characteristics, mosaic-like soil cover, climate, crop rotation practices, soil nutrient supply, etc. There was a dramatic change in Hungarian agriculture at the beginning of the 90s, as the result of which the use of fertilizers decreased sharply for several reasons, e.g. privatization, changes in ownership, withdrawal of state subsidies for mineral fertilizers, drought, etc. Both Hungarian agriculture and the country as a whole is now facing two challenges, i.e. to overcome the economic difficulties and to complete the final phase of preparations to join the EU. Land use change scenarios have proved that the natural endowments of Hungary are suitable for integrating agricultural production with environmental and landscape protection and nature conservation.
Preservative qualities of caraway, known from ancient times, have regained importance as 21st century food safety issues predominate. Essential oil content and its composition of annual caraway varies significantly when row spacing and nutrient supply are manipulated under experimental conditions. During 2006–2007, Carum carvi var. annua cultivar ‘SZK-1’ was sown in small plots in three replications with two factors in split plot design. The row spacings were 24 cm, 36 cm, and 48 cm, and six nutrient application rates were applied (Control, N0K80, N80K0, N80K80, N80+70K0, N80+70K80). The results show that the percentage of essential oil content is influenced by the row space. Furthermore, our data show that increased potassium level enhances the amount of d-carvone in the oil. Every treatment of potassium produced higher d-carvone levels (53.34%) than those found in the control. In 2006, the first year of the two-year study, the highest carvone level (66.25%) was measured in the treatment of N80+70K80, whereas in 2007 the highest level occurred in the N80K80 (49.216%) treatment.
Nowadays, studying the impact of climate change on agricultural crops is of great importance in national and international projects. Research on the effects of climate change on agricultural cultivars is supported by crop growth models. Simulations provide facilities for the low cost investigation of the effects of many factors, both independently of each other and in combination. These models require parameterisation and testing, which can be done using data measurements. In order to test the correctness of the simulations of meteorological and nutrient supply effects, it is necessary to use the results of long-term field experiments with many replicates.In the present study, the Ceres Wheat and AFRCWHEAT2 winter wheat crop growth models were tested, utilizing the data of a five-year sowing date experiment and the relevant meteorological data. An analysis was made of whether changes in the sowing date were able to influence or eliminate the negative effects of the changing climate. It was found that choosing the optimum sowing date could be the key to adapting to changing conditions.
The practical implementation of precision crop production nowadays is becoming more and more widespread. Numerous experiments and farmers’ practical experiences verify the positive impacts of precision nutrient supply on farming. Precision weed control started to spread later, partly due to technical difficulties, partly to the lack of necessary software support that was developed later. The introduction of a new technology requires complex farm-management decisions, including the consideration of economic correlations (costs-yield-income) as well as high-level skills and significant investments from the farmer. These investments can be returned from the income surplus realized through increasing yields and decreasing farming costs. Extra income can also come from the decreasing material costs which, however, do not necessarily compensate the extra costs of implementing the new technology and depends very much on the utilization of savings from different herbicide doses used for the treatment of plots, considering the soil qualities. This study, utilising the data of a technological experiment carried out in Hungary, presents the results of a stochastic simulation model developed with the adaptation of finite element method. The examination was executed at sub-plot level, dividing the plots into small parcels. Our aim was to examine the impact of precision nutrient application and differentiated spraying of herbicides on production costs and yield, as well as the impact of changes on gross margin (income) and the returns on technological development.