The complexes of [Sm(o-MOBA)3bipy]2·H2O and [Sm(m-MOBA)3bipy]2·H2O (o(m)-MOBA = o(m)-methoxybenzoic acid, bipy-2,2′-bipyridine) have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, UV, XRD and
molar conductance, respectively. The thermal decomposition processes of the two complexes were studied by means of TG–DTG
and IR techniques. The thermal decomposition kinetics of them were investigated from analysis of the TG and DTG curves by
jointly using advanced double equal-double steps method and Starink method. The kinetic parameters (activation energy E and pre-exponential factor A) and thermodynamic parameters (ΔH≠, ΔG≠ and ΔS≠) of the second-step decomposition process for the two complexes were obtained, respectively.
Authors:C. Ampelli, D. Di Bella, D. Lister, G. Maschio, and J. Parisi
A small ultraviolet-visible absorption spectrometer which uses fibre optic coupled immersion probes has been incorporated
into a laboratory scale reaction calorimeter. The combined instrument has been tried out using the hydrolysis of acetic anhydride
as a test reaction. With the calorimeter operating in the isoperibolic mode good agreement is found for the pseudo-first order
reaction rate constant as determined from spectroscopic and calorimetric measurements. Experiments have been made in order
to follow the reaction indirectly using optical pH measurements with acid-base indicators. The possibility of determining
the temperature dependence of the rate constant in a single experiment has also been investigated.
In this study, four oil-shale samples (Niğde-Ulukışla) excavated from Central Anatolia Turkey were analyzed where this region
is believed to have a high potential of oil in its shale rich outcrops. The samples (∼40 g) were combusted at 50 psi gas injection
pressure, at an air injection rate of 1.5 L min−1 in a combustion-reaction cell. All the experiments were conducted up to 600°C. The percentages of oxygen consumption and
carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide production were obtained instantaneously with respect to time. The combustion periods and
relative reaction rates were determined by examining the effluent gas concentration peaks. Activation energies of the samples
were determined using Weijdema’s approach. It was observed that the activation energies of the samples are varied between
22–103 kJ mol−1.
The solvent-free reduction of benzophenone and five substituted benzophenones with sodium borohydride to the corresponding alcohols was studied by thermal analysis, X-ray powder diffractometry, NMR spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. In most cases, the reaction occurs via liquid eutectic phases that are formed between the benzophenone and the resulting benzohydrol. Nevertheless, this reaction can be carried out without the need for a solvent, leading to pure alcohol without side products. In some cases, heating may be necessary to achieve a reasonably short reaction time. In conclusion, this reaction type appears to be feasible as a preparative organic reaction that avoids a solvent.
The activation energies of the same process are often reported to have different values, which are usually explained by the
differences in experimental conditions and sample characteristics. In addition to this type of uncertainty, which is associated
with the process (ΔEprocess) there is an uncertainty related to the method of computation of the activation energy (ΔEmethod). For a method that uses fitting single heating rate data to various reaction models, the value of ΔEmethod) method is large enough to explain significant differences in the reported values of the activation energy. This uncertainty
is significantly reduced by using multiple heating rate isoconversional methods, which may be recommended for obtaining reference
values for the activation energy.
This research was aimed to investigate the combustion and kinetics of oil shale samples (Mengen and Himmetoğlu) by differential
scanning calorimetry (DSC). Experiments were performed in air atmosphere up to 600�C at five different heating rates. The
DSC curves clearly demonstrate distinct reaction regions in the oil shale samples studied. Reaction intervals, peak and burn-out
temperatures of the oil shale samples are also determined. Arrhenius kinetic method was used to analyze the DSC data and it
was observed that the activation energies of the samples are varied in the range of 22.4–127.3 kJ mol−1 depending on the oil shale type and heating rate.
This research was aimed
to investigate the role of clay on the combustion and kinetic behavior of
crude oils in limestone matrix. For this purpose, simultaneous TG (thermogravimetry)
and DTA (differential thermal analysis) experiments were performed at three
different heating rates as 10–15 and 20C min–1,
respectively. A uniform trend of decreasing activation energies was observed
with the addition of clay. It was concluded that clays surface area affects
the values of Arrhenius constant, while it is the catalytic properties of
clay, which lower the activation energies of all the reactions, involved in
the combustion process.
presents the model-free kinetic approach in the context of the traditional
kinetic description based on the kinetic triplet, A, E, and f(α)
or g(α). A physical meaning and interpretability
of the triplet are considered. It is argued that the experimental values of f(α) or g(α)
and A are unlikely to be interpretable in the respective terms of the reaction
mechanism and of the vibrational frequency of the activated complex. The traditional
kinetic description needs these values for making kinetic predictions. Interpretations
are most readily accomplished for the experimental value of E
that generally is a function of the activation energies of the individual
steps of a condensed phase process. Model-free kinetic analysis produces a
dependence of E on α that is sufficient
for accomplishing theoretical interpretations and kinetic predictions. Although
model-free description does not need the values of A
and f(α) or g(α),
the methods of their estimating are discussed.