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). Fig. 1. Flow chart of fermented whey beverage production. 2.6 Sensory analysis

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In the case of a widely used spice — Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum — the effect of different drying methods (natural, and by using dryers at temperatures of 30°C, 40 °C, 45°C) was investigated referring to the essential oil amount and composition in the final material. The sensory characteristics of olive oils flavoured by the oregano samples were also determined. The essential oil amount and the area percentage of its main component — carvacrol — were significantly influenced by the different drying temperatures. Compared to the natural way of drying in the case of the essential oil content the drying temperature of 40°C and 45°C was preferable for the higher amounts. Referring to the carvacrol area percentage the drying temperature of 30°C resulted in the highest amounts (89.74±0.28%), that was affirmed by the sensory analysis as well; based on the taste descriptions the consumers found it the most pungent one. According to our results sensory analysis data in most of the cases corresponds to the GC-MS measurements and give a much more complex characterisation of a spice.

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The aroma impact compounds in peels of major mandarin varieties namely Satsuma (Citrus unshi), Bodrum (Citrus deliciosa), and Clementine (Citrus reticulata) from the Aegean region of Turkey were analysed by using a headspace/GC/MS technique, the sensory evaluation was performed by quantitative descriptive analysis. The major volatiles detected in mandarin peels were: limonene (79.96%), γ-terpinene (7.84%), β-myrcene (3.61%), α-pinene (1.68%) (Satsuma); limonene (64.19%), γ-terpinene (14.62%), α-pinene (6.49%), β-pinene (3.99%), β-myrcene 3.88%), α-thujene (2.54%) (Bodrum); limonene (85.87%), β-myrcene (4.54%), γ-terpinene (4.04%), α-pinene (1.49%), octanal (1.02%) (Clementine). The results of sensory analysis demonstrated the following aroma descriptors for each mandarin type; bitter orange, leaf, floral, woody, lemon, alcohol, medicinal (Satsuma); floral, bitter orange, lemon, leaf, woody (Bodrum); bitter orange, lemon, floral, woody, leaf, alcohol, medicinal (Clementine).

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Potato wedges were deep, shallow, and par-fried in soybean, sesame, and mustard oils using a laboratory formulated citric acid based antioxidant. The wedges were stored at –18 °C for 10, 20, 30, and 40 days. The quality of the wedges was assessed by subjective method (sensory analysis) and objective method (texture studies). Fuzzy logic was applied as a tool to analyze the linguistic data of subjective evaluation. Objective evaluation was conducted by studies on hardness, shear modulus and shear energy of the wedges. The wedges with highest defuzzified scores (obtained by sensory evaluation) and minimum changes in textural properties (P<0.05) were obtained in par-fried soybean oil (after 40 days storage) and in deep fried sesame and mustard oils (both after 30 days storage). The ranking of fried wedges (in the antioxidant administered oils) based on defuzzified scores after 40 days were: sesame > mustard > soybean (deep fry), mustard > soybean > sesame (shallow fry) and soybean > mustard > sesame (par-fry).

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Typical Calabrian cured meat products, produced with meat of local and commercial pig breeds were evaluated and characterized for their quality and homogeneity. Sensory, microbiological and physicochemical analyses were carried out at the end of cured meat products ripening. A wide statistical variability was observed in these commercial products due to both company and different productions. The mineral composition was similar to that observed by other authors in similar cured meat products; the statistical analysis revealed only a difference among the samples for magnesium (P<0.01) and for calcium (P<0.05) contents. According to the performed sensory analysis, the meat products were acceptable with some differences due to both production and company variables. About microbial populations, the most abundant were lactic acid bacteria and total aerobic bacteria, while enterobacteria were less represented.

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Initiated by the Association “Wine Route of Etyek Wine District”, the objectives of this study were to isolate and identify autochthonous yeast strains from local wines and to determine their oenologically important properties. The first aim of this work was to characterize the taxonomic and phenotypic diversity of the representative Saccharomyces yeast strains that dominate the spontaneous fermentations in this wine district. The results obtained by molecular ribotyping (ARDRA) revealed a strong dominance of S. cerevisiae, but S. bayanus var. uvarum was also present sporadically. Some of the natural isolates exhibited high volatile acid production or poor fermentation capacity, which imply a quality risk in spontaneous fermentations. Most of the isolates, however, displayed good oenological features during lab scale fermentations. As the second aim of this work, the most promising, selected strains were further tested for oenological properties in microvinification scale and, finally, in large scale fermentations. The analytical and sensory analysis proved that selected strains, including S. bayanus var. uvarum, can be used as local starter cultures, which may contribute to the typicality of the local wines in comparison with commercial starters.

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This study aims to evaluate dairy desserts with (11 g kg −1 ) and without dietary fibres by instrumental measurements of texture and colour and sensory analysis. To maintain a similar texture to that of commercial desserts without fibres, the composition of thickening (corn starch, xanthan and guar gums) and gelling (carrageenan) agents in the basic formulation was also studied. Dietary fibres of bamboo, inulin, wheat, apple, Psyllium and chitosan were tested. Sensory characteristics were evaluated by a non-trained panel. Appearance, flavour, texture and preference were scored using an unstructured line scale. Texture and surface colour were analysed by a Texture Analyser-xT2i and a tristimulus colourimeter (Minolta CR 300). Sensory attributes showed significant differences among treatments. The dessert with chitosan gave the lowest sensory scores. For stress at rupture, the dessert with Psyllium fibre showed the highest value, while the one with chitosan gave the lowest. Apple fibre led to a brownish colour. Panellists preferred inulin or bamboo desserts. Addition of inulin or bamboo fibres to dairy desserts is a good alternative to increase the daily intake of dietary fibres.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
M. Korošec
,
J. Bertoncelj
,
A. Pereyra Gonzales
,
U. Kropf
,
U. Golob
, and
T. Golob

Honey consists of simple carbohydrates. Glucose and fructose represent the majority of honey’s carbohydrate profile, while a spectrum of oligosaccharides is in minority, but typical for the honey type regarding its main source nectar or honeydew, respectively. The content of different carbohydrates was determined in 63 samples of four types of Slovenian honey (acacia, spruce, multifloral and forest honey). The honey samples were of different botanical and geographical origin, and were analysed six to ten months after harvest. The type of honey was determined by sensory analysis and electrical conductometry. In order to determine the content of monosaccharides and oligosaccharides high-pressure anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD) was used. The applied chromatographic method with pulsed amperometric detection enables reliable and selective detection of carbohydrates, especially oligosaccharides, in honey. Statistical comparison of the results showed that there were statistically significant differences among some parameters, while for others such differences did not exist. The results of our research and available data of other authors propose that the carbohydrate profile (the presence of individual carbohydrates in honey) and the content of carbohydrates in honey may have a potentially valuable role in the assessment of botanical origin of honey and as an indicator of putative adulteration of honey with sugar mixes or syrups, respectively. Nevertheless, analysis on numerous samples and different honey types are needed.

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The study was aimed at sensory analysis and volatile content determination in fried cheese. Fried cheese was produced under commercial conditions from acid tvarog ripened and fried with no butter added (non-fat) and with an addition of butter at 4:1 (reference cheese). Cheese was evaluated immediately after production and after 6 weeks of storage at 4 °C. Total and casein nitrogen, water and fat were assayed in cheese. Sensory analyses of cheese descriptors were conducted by profiling on a 0–10 scale, while volatiles were isolated by solid phase microextraction (SPME) technique. The dominant aroma in reference cheese was cowy/phenolic and cooked, while in non-fat cheese it was cooked and free fatty acid. Sulphur aroma was least perceptible in reference and non-fat cheese. After 6-week storage the only significant changes were weakened cooked aroma in non-fat cheese and waxy/crayon aroma in reference cheese. Differences in profile analysis of full and non-fat cheese were reflected in amounts of determined volatiles, especially total sulphur compounds, acids, methyl ketones, terpenes and esters.

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The present report is in continuation to our earlier reports on the identification and fine mapping of three aroma QTLs in basmati rice using a bi-parental mapping population derived from a cross between Pusa 1121, a basmati rice variety, and Pusa 1342, a non-aromatic rice variety. We used a combination of genetic mapping and transcriptome profiling to narrow down the number of differentially expressed genes in rice to identify potential candidate genes for rice grain aroma. Highly aromatic and non-aromatic recombinant inbred lines (RILs) were identified through sensory analysis of mature milled grains. RILs with similar phenotypes were bulked together using bulk segregant analysis approach which drastically reduced the number of differentially expressed genes from 4016 to 1344. The transcriptome profiles generated were analyzed through Affymetrix rice genome array containing probe sets designed from all the predicted rice gene sequences. Microarray-based transcriptome profiling revealed one down-regulated gene co-located in QTL region aro3.1 on chromosome 3, eight genes co-located in the aro4.1 region on chromosome 4 and the badh2 gene on chromosome 8 to be differentially expressed in the aromatic parent and aromatic bulk. These genes are the most suitable candidates for future validation and development of new molecular functional markers to facilitate marker assisted breeding.

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