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Scientometrics
Authors:
Jia Zheng
,
Zhi-yun Zhao
,
Xu Zhang
,
Dar-zen Chen
,
Mu-hsuan Huang
,
Xiao-ping Lei
,
Ze-yu Zhang
,
Yun-hua Zhao
, and
Run-sheng Liu

Introduction With the development of science and technology, global economy has become extremely competitive. A country's competitiveness depends on its overall national strength, and one of the keys is its science and

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Abstract  

The paper presents a methodology for studying the interactions between science and technology. Our approach rests mostly on patent citation and co-word analysis. In particular, this study aims to delineate intellectual spaces in thin-film technology in terms of science/technology interaction. The universe of thin-film patents can be viewed as the macro-level and starting point of our analysis. Applying a bottom-up approach, intellectual spaces at the micro-level are defined by tracing prominent concepts in publications, patents, and their citations of scientific literature. In another step, co-word analysis is used to generate meso-level topics and sub-topics. Overlapping structures and specificities that emerge are explored in the light of theoretical understanding of science-technology interactions. In particular, one can distinguish prominent concepts among patent citations that either co-occur in both thin-film publications and patents or reach out to one of the two sides. Future research may address the question to what extent one can interpret directionality into this.

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The continuous development of food production technologies is essential because of the uninterruptedly growing food production; the transportation of these food products, which means longer and longer transport; and because of the increasing consumer demands concerning the applied technologies, which assure the safe and healthy nutrition. This modernisation trend today has already reached the development of minimally food processing technologies, which make possible the creation of food products preserving their original nutritional values and having a higher added value. Concerning the application of any new technology, it is a more and more important demand that the environmental impact should be lower compared to the earlier technologies. This lower impact can be manifested in less energy and water use, in less wastes production or in more rational energy use.

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Abstract  

The reseach, technology and development (RTD) evaluation in terms of science and technology policy has come to be important in stimulating research activities and in continuously keeping the vitality and the higher quality of research in RTD institutions. There are two criteria on the RTD evaluation, i.e, in-house evaluation from the stand point of RTD management and independent macroscopic evaluation for the decision making of companies and/or policy making for science and technology policy.The most important point for RTD evaluation in the former criteria is in the mission itself. RTD in universities, public research institutes, and enterprises have different objectives and characteristics. Therefore, the mission and methodology of RTD evaluations should be different, by categorized type and objectives of research institutions, and be developed inhouse. Results of RTD evaluations should be fed back to researchers or engineers and disclosed principally if the mission was to stimulate knowledge creation through RTD activities.The in-house RTD evaluation can be classified in general into three categories: prior evaluation, mid-term review, and ex-post facto review. The methodologies to evaluate RTD in each phase of the RTD process are different, even among those institutes categorized into the same type such as national and regional research institutes. In this paper, two cases of RTD evaluation a) in Riken, which was founded in 1917 as a private research foundation and later reorganized as a semi-public research corporation of the Science and Technology-Agency, b) in regional public research institutes.RTD evaluation from the view point of policy assessment of governmental science and technology policy is discussed through analysis of data obtained by the survey of research activities in regional public research institutes. It can be concluded that developments and introduction of RTD evaluation as a new management system in these institutes is improving the research environment and advancing the quality of research. The differences of RTD evaluation between a Center of Excellence (COE) such as Riken and local technology centers, will be compared and the policy implication of RTD evaluation will also be discussed in terms of promotion of science and technology.

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BPO by using an isothermal microcalorimeter to obtain the required data [ 8 , 9 ]. The chosen approach was to establish a simple, green thermal technology for thermal decomposition that included the thermal hazard and the incompatible reaction

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Journal of Flow Chemistry
Authors:
Leonardo Degennaro
,
Claudia Carlucci
,
Sonia De Angelis
, and
Renzo Luisi

. V. ; Garcia-Verdugo , E. , Eds.; RSC Green Chemistry; Royal Society of Chemistry : Cambridge , 2010 ; (e) Microreactors: New Technology for Modern Chemistry; Ehrfeld , W. ; Hessel , V. ; Löwe , H. , Eds

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In this paper, an attempt has been made to forecast science and technology expenditure of India by simulation method as well as by regression method. The base data used are the average yearly growth rates of science and technology expenditure both at current and constant prices. For the regression analyses, the yearly growth rates of the gross national product at factor cost both at current and constant prices are used as independent variable. The forecast values of S&T expenditure have been given up to seven years from 1982–83, for both simulation method and regression method.

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. N., Elliott, J. M., Gardner, J. W. (1997) Electronic noses and their applications in the food industry. Food Technology , 51(12), 44–48. Gardner J. W. Electronic noses and

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The paper reviews briefly the present status and future trends of some new, emerging food preservation technologies and anticipates the major lines of developments in relation to functional and transgenic foods. These topics of innovative food technologies and food products are of particular importance in view of the European Unions’s regulation concerning “novel foods and novel ingredients”. The author considers the obstacles and the needs for more research and other actions such as safety assessment and balanced communication to the public.

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methods and questionnaires to determine the existence of addiction. Before pathologizing technology-related behaviors, it is important to analyze them in context. For example, there has been a considerable amount of research conducted on smartphone

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