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Progress in Agricultural Engineering Sciences
Authors: István Dalmadi, Dávid Kántor, Kai Wolz, Katalin Polyák-Fehér, Klára Pásztor-Huszár, József Farkas, and András Fekete

High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) processing technology offers the possibility to preserve quality attributes. Objective test methods describing quality in a complex form have an important role in the development of new products and in the quality assurance of different technologies. Therefore, research was performed to compare the effects of HHP treatment and heat pasteurization on visual appearance, volatile composition, taste and texture properties of strawberry purees measured by sensorial and objective methods. Sensory evaluation did not show significant differences between samples. Similar result was obtained from the color measurements. Viscosity of purees changed only slightly as a result of the treatments. Electronic nose and electronic tongue were found to be promising tools for discrimination of strawberry purees treated by different levels of high hydrostatic pressure or thermal treatment. Canonical discriminant analysis showed that control and “600 MPa for 5 minutes” samples were quite similar. Samples treated by 600 MPa for 15 minutes were distinguished from the above mentioned ones. The heat treated samples (80°C for 5 and 15 minutes) were definitely separated from the control samples. Fusion of the data from the electronic nose and tongue showed the same trend and improved the classification of the treated puree samples.

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The enrichment of bread with wheat bran as a source of dietary fibre seems to be necessary for human health, because bread is the most consumed commodity in many countries. However, wheat bran has some adverse effects on the bread quality during storage. The aim of this study was to produce barbari bread with increased nutritional value and improved texture by the addition of coated wheat bran (0.67 and 1.34% based on flour stearic acid or St1, 2 and beeswax or Bw1, 2). Bread made from uncoated wheat bran was used as control. The least crust to crumb ratio was seen for control and Bw1. Water activity and moisture content results showed that the crumb of Bw1 and control had the better moisture retention during storage. Textural properties of samples showed that there were no significant differences in the hardness of the samples (P>0.05). However, the least increase in hardness during storage was observed for stearic acid coated samples. Other texture profile analysis parameters, such as cohesiveness and springiness, showed that Bw1 and Bw2 samples had no significant changes during storage. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showed the least enthalpy for Bw1 after baking (385.21 J g–1) and during storage (567.62 J g–1). Accordingly, results showed that beeswax, especially at 0.67% (based on flour), is the best shell material for bran coating in order to improve bread texture and shelf life.

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Abstract  

Activity concentrations using gamma-ray spectrometer and distributions of natural radionuclides in soil samples collected were investigated to assess the environmental radioactivity and characterization of radiological hazard. The average concentrations of 238U, 232Th series and 40K in the 5 cm depth soil were 22.53, 33.43 and 406.62 Bq kg−1, respectively, which was within world median ranges in the UNSCEAR 2000 report. The average absorbed dose rate estimated by soil activity and annual effective doses were 49.32 nGy h−1 and 60.48 μSv, respectively. Since the soil is an important building material, the mean radium equivalent activity (Ra eq), external (H ex) and internal (H in) hazard index using various models given in the literature for the study area were evaluated as 101.72 Bq kg−1, 0.27 and 0.34, respectively, which were below the recommended limits. The effects of pH value, conductivity, true density and textural properties of soil samples on the natural radionuclide levels were also studied. The application of cluster analysis (CA) and principal component analysis (PCA), coupled with Pearson correlation coefficient analysis, were utilized to analyze the data, identify and clarify the effects of physico-chemical properties on natural radioactivity levels. The CA and PCA results showed that the former method yielded three distinctive groups of the soil variables whereas the latter one yielded the number of variables into three factors with 87.5% variance explanation.

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and Fatigue in Polymer Matrix Composites, Chapter 2, Woodhead . Bunka , F. , Pachlová , V. , and Nenutilová , L. ( 2013 ) Texture properties of Dutch-type cheese as a function

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: J. Azizi, D. Dollimore, P. Dollimore, G. Heal, P. Manley, W. Kneller, and W. Jin Yong

Abstract  

In this study a relationship between the surface and textural properties of carbon blacks and the gasification process induced thermally in air is noted. A temperature jump method was used to follow the gasification in air and to establish the relevant Arrhenius parameters. This can be associated with the activity of ‘basal’ plane carbon atoms as well as ‘edge’ carbon atoms at the surface. This is based on a model of carbon black structure consisting of the irregular packing of small graphite carbon structures. The carbon black surface was measured using a single measurement of adsorption based essentially on the BET volumetric method. The carbon black surface had a rate of oxidation per unit are which clearly indicated that the lower area carbon blacks had a predominately active area of ‘edge’ atoms at the surface while the surface of the higher area carbon blacks had a predominate amount of ‘basal’ plane graphite carbon atoms.

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. , Roohinejad , S. , Totosaus , A. , Mirhosseini , H. , Shuhaimi , M. , Meimandipour , A. , Omidizadeh , A. and Abd-Manap , M.Y. ( 2012 ). Optimization of textural properties and formulation of reduced fat Cheddar cheeses containing fat replacers

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Kopjar, M., Piližota, V., Nedić Tiban, N., Šubarić, D., Babić, J. & Ačkar, Đ. (2007): Effect of different pectin addition and its concentration on colour and textural properties of raspberry jam. Dt. Lebensm.-Rundsch. , 103 , 164

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.30. Armero , E. & Collar , C. ( 1997 ): Texture properties of formulated wheat doughs . Relationships with dough and bread technological quality Z. Lebensmittelunters. Forsch. , 204 , 136 – 145

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textural properties of a meatbased product (sobrassada) using ultrasonic techniques. J. Fd Engng , 53 , 279–285. Femenia A. Evaluation of textural properties of a meatbased product

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evaluate the effects of bread improver additive on bread crumb texture properties. Acta Alimentaria , 39 , 180–191. Fekete A. Methods to evaluate the effects of bread improver additive

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