We have collected sixteen total diet samples from two socioeconomic groups in Turkey by duplicate portion techniques. Samples
were homogenized with titanium-blade homogenizer, freeze dried and analyzed for their minor and trace elements mostly by neutron
activation analysis. Bread and flour samples were also collected from the same regions and analyzed similarly by instrumental
neutron activation analysis. We have determined concentrations of more than 25 elements in total diets, bread and flour, and
fiber and phytate in total diets. We have determined daily dietary intakes of these population groups, probable source of
elements through correlation coefficients, and enrichment factor calculations.
Authors:I. Othman, O. Akanle, S. Ramsbottom, and N. Spyrou
Sixty-six samples of different varieties of Syrian tobacco were collected and classified according to type and height of the leaves on the plant. Soil samples were also collected from the planting fields. INAA by short and long irradiation was used to determine the concentration of trace elements in tobacco and soil samples. Short irradiation (1 min.) and long irradiation (7 hrs.) were carried out. Bowen's Kale and IAEA soil 7 were used as a reference materials. Results were compared with published data for tobacco.
Authors:S. Boulyga, H. Petri, I. Zhuk, N. Kanash, and A. Malenchenko
Neutron activation analysis was used for routine measurement of trace elements in thyroids of inhabitants of Belarus as well
as in thyroids of people operated for thyroid cancer. The method chosen allowed the analysis of 28 elements, among them essential
and toxic ones, with a good accuracy. The results obtained showed significant differences in the elemental composition of
thyroid from the different regions. The changes of elemental composition of thyroids of inhabitants of the Gomel region, where
goiter is endemic, seem to be identical to those in the tumor tissue.
Authors:T. Martinez, J. Lartigue, P. Avila-Perez, G. Zarazua, M. Navarrete, S. Tejeda, and A. Ramírez
Trace elements were determined by TXRF in whole blood samples in a randomly non-occupational exposed population living in
the Metropolitan Zone of the Mexico Valley (MZMV). Arithmetic and geometric means of S, Ca, Cu, Zn, Rb and Pb concentrations,
were on the reported range values for non-occupational population in other countries, while those of K and Br were higher,
possibly due to dietary habits and geographical or environmental factors. The noticeable decline in blood lead level (91%)
should be positively perceived. As a part of the Quality Control Program, a certified IAEA-A13 was tested.
Authors:N. Gras, L. Munoz, M. Thieck, and S. Hurtado
Levels of essential and toxic trace elements in six marine species greatly in demand in the international market (canned pink clams, razor clams, clams, king crab, sardines, and frozen albacore tuna fish) were studied. A special laboratory adequately equipped for handling and preparing biological materials, is described. The elements As, Br, Na, Se, Hg, Cr, Fe, Zn and Rb were determined by INAA, while copper and cadmium content were determined using RNAA. Significant differences were found on comparing the contents of some toxic elements in mollusk and other samples of marine food. Various certified reference materials (CRMs) of the IAEA, NIST and NIES were analyzed for quality assurance purposes.
Authors:Keh-Shaw Chen, Chia-Liang Tseng, and Te-Hsien Lin
Natural drugs are widely used for diuretic, phlegm elimination and stomach invigoration purposes. Seventy-five of the most common remedies used by Chinese people have been subjected to trace element survey analysis by instrumental neutron activition. Within this large number of different natural products, fourteen trace elements (K, Sc, Cr, Fe, Co, Zn, Br, Rb, Cs, La, Sm, Eu, Au and Th) are commonly detected. Among these elements, Fe had the highes: concentration followed by Zn, and Rb, Sm, Eu and Au were found to have the lowest concentations. Although the three groups of natural drugs exhibit a widely different therapeutic action, the concentration ranges of the fourteen elements were very similar. While this suggests no apparent specific role for the trace elements in the drug function, parallels are drawn between the known drug related functions of Rb, Zn, Br, Fe, Co and K and the levels of elements found in the natural drugs. It is concluded that the various natural drugs also provide human benefits through supplements of essential elements such as Fe, Zn, Cr, Sc, Rb and Co.
Authors:A. Gharib, H. Rahimi, H. Pyrovan, N. Raoffi, and H. Taherpoor
This work is part of a project with the IAEA, in a coordinated program on Trace Elements in Human and Bio-Environmental Systems to evaluate their nutritional requirements, interrelations and the role of trace elements in health, metabolism, etc. Cow's milk being regarded as one of the most important and nutritious foodstuffs consumed by people. Hence as a first step, an elemental analysis for milk was carried out for this purpose; a few samples of pasteurized milk and local sample were investigated for essential and toxic trace elements. The secondary aim of this project was the assessment of various analytical techniques involved. However, in the present work, the methods involved were AAS, PIXE and NAA. The latter method was applied both instrumentally and radiochemically. Although the results pertaining to the various methods employed are not in good agreement. there is, however, some justification to clarify this internal inconsistency. The precision of NAA and AAS allows a greater degree of acceptance. Although PIXE is very fast and rather routine, the technique for trace element analysis needs certain adaptations and development.
Factors that influence the adsorption of trace elements or radionuclides on hydrous iron oxides were investigated. The adsorption of monovalent cations (Cs+, Rb+) on hydrous iron oxides is not strongly pH-dependent and it can be regarded as nonspecific. On the other hand, the adsorption of Ag+, divalent cations (Zn2+, Cd2+, Mn2+, Sr2+) or trivalent cations (Cr3+, La3+, Ce3+, Eu3+, Gd3+, Er3+, Yb3+) is strongly pH-dependent. The regularities of the adsorption of these cations on hydrous iron oxides are discussed. Also, the differences in the adsorption behaviour of some divalent and trivalent cations are explained. Freshly precipitated iron(III) hydroxide can be used for the decontamination of radionuclides from low-level waste solutions. However, the efficacy of decontamination depends on the oxidation state and the chemical properties of radionuclides.
Authors:A. Chatt, H. Dang, B. Fong, C. Jayawickreme, L. McDowell, and D. Pegg
Neutron activation analysis (NAA) methods have been developed for the determination of major, minor and trace elements in duplicate diets and individual food items. These include a cyclic instrumental NAA (CINAA) method for measuring Se content through its short-lived nuclide77mSe; epithermal INAA (EINAA) for I and As; conventional INAA for Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sn and Zn; combination of EINAA and INAA for Al; radiochemical NAA (RNAA) for As, Au, Co, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mo, Sb, Se and Zn; and preconcentration NAA (PNAA) for U and Th. Accuracy of measurements have been evaluated by analyzing a number of biological and diet reference materials. Multielement concentrations of diets and foods have been measured by these methods.
Authors:E. Cortés, N. Gras, L. Muñoz, and V. Cassorla
Seven trace elements were determined in milk formulas, powder milk and infant food. Instrumental neutron activation analysis
was used for the analysis of Fe, Zn, Co, Cr and Rb, while As and Cu content was determined using radiochemical neutron activation
analysis. Differences were found in the trace element content of foods of the same type. Milk formulas are comparable with
human milk according to the results obtained for the elements analyzed. The samples of powder cow's milk presented similar
concentrations of the elements studied. Liver with vegetables was found to have the highest Cu content. A meal prepared at
home, made of beef and fresh vegetables showed a higher trace element content than its similar commercial one. An estimation
of the daily intake of the elements analyzed was made and compared with minimum recommended daily ingestion.