Search Results

You are looking at 31 - 40 of 54 items for :

  • "Biomonitors" x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All
Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors: A. Montero Alvarez, J. R. Estévez Alvarez, H. Iglesias Brito, O. Pérez Arriba, D. López Sánchez, and H. T. Wolterbeek

Summary  

An epiphytic lichen (Physcia alba sp.) grown over Roystonea regia tree was used as biomonitor of air quality in the Havana City west side. During the survey, 81 sampling sites were selected according to traffic and industry conditions. The concentration for 14 elements (Mg, Al, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Cd and Pb) was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) and anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV). Contents of Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb obtained by both techniques were compared. Several biological reference materials (RM's) were analyzed in order to assure the quality of analytical results. Some pollution sources were identified using principal component analysis. A total of 5 factors were achieved, of which 4 could be interpreted in terms of anthropogenic pollution sources. However, the expected correlation between traffic influence and lead concentration in lichen could not be demonstrated. The factor values patterns are presented.

Restricted access

Abstract  

An intercomparison of data obtained for a moss reference material (Hylocomium splendens) used as biomonitor of atmospheric deposition by different multi-element techniques is presented. In total 43 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr, Ag, Sn, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Tm, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Th, U) were determined using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), conventional instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA) and as well as shorttime neutron activation analysis without and with a6LiD-converter. Advantages and drawbacks of each method are discussed. The introduction of moss reference materials for atmospheric multi-element deposition studies involving nuclear analytical techniques is strongly recommended.

Restricted access

Abstract  

The increased pollution in the aquatic ecosystem has led to the investigation of toxic elements in sea water by using marine organisms to assess marine pollution from human activities. Among these organisms, the mollusks bivalves have been used as biomonitors since they can accumulate trace elements and other substances, without the occurrence of their death. In this study, Perna perna mussels were transplanted from a mussel farm (reference region) to four sites located in coastal regions of São Paulo State, Brazil, close to anthropic discharge areas. Vanadium was determined in mussel tissues by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Quality control of V analysis was checked by analyzing biological reference materials and the results obtained were precise and in good agreement with the certified values. Comparisons between the V concentrations obtained in transplanted mussels indicated that those from São Sebastião region, close to an oil terminal presented the highest concentration of this element, during spring.

Restricted access

Abstract  

The development over time in applications of nuclear activation techniques in environmental studies is critically reviewed. A vast majority of the work has been based on activation analysis using thermal and sometimes epithermal neutrons from nuclear reactors (NAA). Whereas radiochemical methods were frequently used until about 1975, the work reported more recently has mainly been multi-element studies based on instrumental NAA. The by far most successful application has been the analysis of aerosol samples, but considerable work has also been done in other areas such as precipitation and surface waters, soils, vascular plants, moss and lichen biomonitors, and fossil fuels with by-products. Some interesting examples of speciation analysis, based on pre-irradiation separations, have also been reported. Rapid development in alternative multi-element techniques such as ICP-MS has shown these techniques to be superior in a number of cases where NAA earlier was the technique of choice. Areas where efforts should be concentrated in future NAA work are indicated.

Restricted access

Abstract  

Epiphytic bromeliadTillandsia usneoides was used as a biomonitor of metal atmospheric pollution in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The samples were collected from an unpolluted area and were exposed for 8 weeks in 10 sites of the city and in a control site. The data obtained showed that the control site presented lower concentration for most elements analyzed and the highest concentrations of Na, Cl, Br, K. The highest concentrations of Zn, Cu and V were observed in stations submitted to industrial and vehicular sources. The results obtained for rare earth elements, Al, Fe, Mg, Mn, Rb and Sc indicate mineral dust origin. The elements Ba, As and Sb presented higher values in stations near streets with heavy traffic.

Restricted access

Summary  

The concentrations of 23 elements, namely Al, As, Br, Ca, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hf, Hg, I, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Sc, Sm, V, and Zn, in seven Rhodophyta (red), three Phaeophyta (brown) and five Chlorophyta (green) seaweed species from different areas along the coast of Ghana were determined using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). These species can be potentially used as biomonitors. The INAA method involved irradiations using thermal and epithermal neutrons at the Dalhousie University SLOWPOKE-2 Reactor (DUSR) facility followed by conventional and anti-coincidence g-ray spectrometry. The precision in terms of relative standard deviation was within ±4%. The accuracy of the methods was evaluated by analyzing four reference materials. Our results were within ±3% of the certified or information values in all cases.

Restricted access

Abstract  

The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been promoting studies on air pollution since 1992. During the period 1992–1999 there have been six major co-ordinated research and regional technical co-operation projects in which 77 counterparts from 40 Member States actively participated. The studies supported by the IAEA have included ambient and workplace airborne particulate matter, the use of appropriate plant biomonitors and a series of laboratory intercomparison exercises in support to these projects. Recent and current IAEA projects in this field are reviewed in the light of the application of neutron activation analysis, which has been used as a major analytical technique by more than two thirds of the counterparts, and contributed also approximately two thirds of all analytical results for the intercomparison exercises.

Restricted access

Comparison of heavy metal deposition by large scale biomonitoring in Europe and tropical Africa

Cadmium accumulation and the physiology of the moss T. Ruralis under heavy metal treatment

Cereal Research Communications
Authors: Gyula Rabnecz, Bea Papp, and György Vegvary

biomonitors — indicators for heavy metal pollution of the terrestrial environment . (ed: B. Markert),. VHC-Publisher Inc., Weinheim-New York, pp. 206–215. Csintalan Zs

Restricted access

Drasch, G., Wanghofer, E. and Roider, G. (1997): Are blood, urine, hair, and muscle valid biomonitors for the internal burden of men with the heavy metals mercury, lead and cadmium? Trace Elements and Electrolytes 14 , 116

Restricted access
Acta Botanica Hungarica
Authors: Gy. Rabnecz, I. Keresztényi, Gy. Isaák, I. Jócsák, Zs. Varga, and E. Peli

of moss cushion transplantation technique for bioindication of heavy metal pollution . — In: Markert, B. (ed.): Plants as biomonitors. Indicators for heavy metals in the terrestrial environment. VCH Publisher, Weinhem, New York, pp. 403

Restricted access