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, alcohol, benzodiazepines, barbiturates, or caffeine ( Nichols, 2004 ). Psychological factors affecting the development and continuation of addiction include mainly disorders of psychological development, possibly caused by insufficient prenatal

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, extracurriculars, smoking, marijuana, alcohol, drug, and caffeine use. Convenience sampling 45.8% male DS: M age = NR (range 14–18) Depression (1 item; feeling sad or hopeless almost every day for 2 or more weeks) Krossbakken et al. (2018) Norway 3-year

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