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In 1992 a 120 km long section of the Danube river, part of the border line between Hungary and Slovakia, was diverted into a new riverbed to put into operation the Gabčikovo (Bős-Nagymaros) Hydropower Plant. To follow up the environmental changes a monitoring system in the Szigetköz region, seriously affected by the diversion of the river, was established by the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. Results of the bryological monitoring work, conducted in the river branches are presented in this article. Today, the species composition of the aquatic-riparian bryophyte vegetation living in the various sections of the Szigetköz branch-system is different from that of 1991–1992. The abundance-frequency values of aquatic species have decreased, while the proportions of mesophilous long-lived species and short-lived bryophytes have increased. The changes of water requirement spectra of bryophyte vegetation and the growing importance of certain species groups indicate that the ecological conditions became drier. Apparently, the water supply system operated from 1995 provides insufficient amount of water and is inadequate to stop (and even less so to reverse) the environmental changes that took place in the branch-systems.

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This paper broadly compares environmentalism in Hungary and Slovakia, with a specific focus on Slovakia’s green movement under late-socialism and after. Nature activism in both countries was not directly controlled by the Party, and in each case individuals pushed the boundaries of activism and redefined notions of protest and dissent. But the way these two movements emerged were quite different from one another. In Hungary, the movement coalesced around a big “international” Soviet-style mega-project. This was the flashpoint. In Hungary, the Nagymaros dam project was an infringement — a monument of unhappy partnerships, and a symbol that fueled nationalist rumblings. In Slovakia, the whole notion of megaworks was not an unwelcome idea. But the differences between Hungarian and Slovak greens are more than the story of a dam controversy. While Hungary’s movement had its origins in the Danube River, Slovak greens emerged from the conservation of folk dwellings in the mountains. In Slovakia — the weekend amateur, the Catholic, the writer, the sociologist — instead found traction in the notion of human conservation. I explore these differences and examine how things change in the post-socialist period.

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The spatial distribution of bivalves in relation to environmental conditions was studied along a second- and third order stream — medium-sized river (River Ipoly) — large river (River Danube) continuum in the Hungarian Danube River system. Quantitative samples were collected four times in 2007 and a total of 1662 specimens, belonging to 22 bivalve species were identified. Among these species, two are endangered (Pseudanodonta complanata, Unio crassus) and five are invasive (Dreissena polymorpha, D. rostriformis bugensis, Corbicula fluminea, C. fluminalis, Anodonta woodiana) in Hungary. The higher density presented by Pisidium subtruncatum, P. supinum, P. henslowanum and C. fluminea suggests that these species may have a key role in this ecosystem. Three different faunal groups were distinguished but no significant temporal change was detected. The lowest density and diversity with two species (P. casertanum and P. personatum) occurred in streams. The highest density and diversity was found in the River Ipoly, in the side arms of the Danube and in the main arm of the Danube with sand and silt substrate, being dominated by P. subtruncatum and P. henslowanum. Moderate density and species richness were observed in the main arm of the Danube with pebble and stone substrate, being dominated by C. fluminea and S. rivicola. Ten environmental variables were found to have significant influence on the distribution of bivalves, the strongest explanatory factors being substrate types, current velocity and sedimentological characteristics.

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Birk, S., Van Kouwen, L. and Willby, N. 2012. Harmonising the bioassessment of large rivers in the absence of near-natural reference conditions — a case study of the Danube River. Freshwater Biol. 57: 1716

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Archaeologiai Értesítő
Gyöngyi Kovács
Márton Rózsás

The study analyses Ottoman clay tobacco pipes from the River Drava region (Barcs, Babócsa, Szigetvár). Some are stray finds, but many of those from Barcs are from the Ottoman palisaded stronghold there, from its Ottoman layer. The study fills a gap in the literature in that it presents hitherto unpublished pipe finds from this region. The goal of the research was to establish whether in addition to characteristics that were uniform countrywide, regional features, too, could be pointed out, and whether there were links between pieces which permitted the hypothesising of common workshops or trade routes. In the background of the similarities, waterborne trade conducted along the Drava and Danube rivers may be considered important, but other factors, too, may have had a role, e.g. various population movements and also redeployments of soldiers. In the light of the written data, Szigetvár had a workshop which produced clay tobacco pipes; kindred finds from the region can, perhaps, be brought into connection with this workshop.

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During the excavations of the Upper Palaeolithic site at Mogyorósbánya several non-utilitarian artefacts were found. Beside the earlier published piece of fossil resin (amber) and lumps of red ochre, more than one hundred Palaeogene and Neogene fossil molluscs, large foraminifers, corals and trace fossils from at least three different geological formations, as well as numerous fragments of phyllite were documented.

Pebbles of this soft shale were most probably collected from the alluvium of the Danube river. The majority of the pieces show clear traces of scraping and along the periphery of the largest artefact rhythmic incisions are visible. Even if this piece is not a ready-made object, it can be compared to the limestone and sandstone pebbles found on the Epigravettian site of Pilismarót-Pálrét. Another interesting artefact of unknown function is a carefully shaped but strongly fragmented piece with sharp edge.

Fossils of the Eocene Epoch were easily accessible in the region of Mogyorósbánya, while the nearest fossiliferous outcrops of the Oligocene and Pannonian sediments are found 15–17 km in south-eastern direction from the site.

Few gastropod shells show unambiguous traces of human modification. Typically, among the 16 Melanopsis fossils found in a single square meter only three pieces were manufactured. On the other hand, the majority of the Dentalium and worm tube fragments were cut and their surfaces show intense rounding and shine.

The not modified Nummulites, corals and large internal casts of gastropods were most probably collected by Prehistoric humans because of their unusual form. This interesting group of the Mogyorósbánya artefacts and are compared to the fossils published from the Pilisszántó I rockshelter and to the not modified fossils from Moravia and Romania.

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Budapest is famous for its thermal springs and spas and outstanding thermal water resources. In the 21st century renewable energy utilization — including the use of geothermal energy — became the focus of interest. Improving the use of the different forms of geothermal energy requires the assessment of their possibilities. The potential for deep geothermal doublet systems for direct heating in Budapest was evaluated based on the temperature conditions, the depth and reconnaissance of the carbonate reservoir. NW Buda is not appropriate for thermal water exploration. SW and SE Budapest have better temperature conditions but the lithology of the reservoir is uncertain. Beneath Pest the thermal water is well exploitable. It is obvious from the map of the region that the area is promising; however, due to the hydraulic continuity of the system, reinjection is desirable. Considering the reliability of the employed data the geothermal potential map is suitable only for general orientation and guidance.

The geothermal potential map for Groundwater-sourced Heat Pump Systems (GHPS; scale = 1:40,000) was assembled by evaluating the thickness and appearance of the gravel strata and water table, complemented by the sulfate content as an aggressive component of groundwater. The original geothermal potential map series can be used for the evaluation of potential sites in Budapest. It can be concluded that the Buda side of the Danube River is almost entirely unsuitable for shallow groundwater-based heat pump installations. The only areas under consideration are Óbuda and the riverbanks. On the Pest side, there is no gravel in the central part; the largest areas close to the river and in the immediate surroundings are uncertain, with patches of suitable and possible categories. The southern and eastern area of Pest is the most prospective for GHPS installation. The potential maps only consider natural parameters; however, installation may be strongly influenced by the urbanization and the city environment.

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. Süveges 2005. Origin of shallow groundwater of Csepel Island (south of Budapest, Hungary, Danube River): isotopic and chemical approach. Hydrological Processes (in press). Molnár Zs. and Borhidi. A. 2003. Hungarian

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. [5]. Vízügyi és Környezetvédelmi Központi Igazgatóság, Duna-vízgyűjtő magyarországi része, Vízgyűjtő-gazdálkodási terv [Hungarian Central Directorate for Water and Environment, Hungarian part of the Danube River Basin, River Basin Management Plan

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Danube River’s water level on the gravity gradient, Student reserach paper , 2010. Cerovský I., Meurers B., Pohánka V., Frisch W., Goga B. Gravity and magnetic 3D modeling software — Mod3D, in Meurers, B. and Pail, R. (eds

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