This article addresses the potential effectiveness of blind review in selecting and funding research proposals in a “scientifically
small” country. By analyzing 474 responses of the blinded reviewers ever worked for Korea Science and Engineering Fund, it
was found that blind review is fairly effective. About two thirds of the blinded reviewers were unable to recognize the applicants
accurately. The applicant detection was affected by (1) physical age, (2) professional experience, and (3) geographical location
of doctoral education of the applicant, (4) review experience, (5) rank of employing universities of the reviewers, and (6)
similirity of research interest between an applicant and a reviewer. It was also found that blind review was more strongly
advocated by those who had made a wrong guess or who had given up guessing. Implications of the findings and future research
directions were discussed.
This study examines network topologies of interdisciplinary research relationships in science and technology (S&T) and investigates
the relational linkages between the interdisciplinary relations and the quality of research performance. A network analysis
was performed to evaluate the General Research Grant (GRG) program, an interdisciplinary research funding program of the Korea
Science and Engineering Foundation (KOSEF); the dataset covered the 2002–2004 period. The analytical results reveal the hidden
network structure of interdisciplinary research relationships and demonstrate that the quality of research performance might
be enhanced not only by interdependent pressures placed on various research fields but also by accumulated research capabilities
that are relatively difficult to access and reproduce by other research fields.
Authors:Jae-Yong Choung, Hong-Ghi Min, and Myeong-Cheol Park
In recent years, the topic of knowledge production has been widely investigated in the advanced countries. However, the process
by which knowledge is produced in the developing countries has not been fully explored or characterized. In Korea, the science
and engineering fields strongly reflect systems of knowledge production in the universities and demonstrate the dynamics of
systems of innovation for knowledge production. Through using a case study including data for knowledge production, in the
field of information and telecommunication, the following general trends were observed. Firstly, there has been a trend towards
increasing the capabilities for knowledge production, via domestic and foreign collaboration. Secondly, there has been an
increasing trend towards the diversification of knowledge sources such as university-industry, and university-public research
institutes. Finally, the establishment of a nation's knowledge base is influenced by governmental research and development
This article reports findings from a study of the relationship between citation measures (impact factor and its quartile)
among international composition of editorial board and foreign authorship in 17 Korean SCI journals for the three 5-year periods,
1995, 2000, and 2005. With few exceptions, the relationship between international editorial board composition and foreign
authorship and citation measures was non-existent, at p > 0.05. However, the international members on editorial boards and foreign authorship of papers in Korean journals have increased
greatly over the three 5-year periods, and there has been to a certain degree growth in the visibility and performance of
Korean SCI journals in terms of impact factors, but not their quartiles.
Authors:Han Woo Park, Heung Deug Hong, and Loet Leydesdorff
Summary This paper elaborates on the Triple Helix model for measuring the emergence of a knowledge base of socio-economic systems. The ‘knowledge infrastructure’ is measured using multiple indicators: webometric, scientometric, and technometric. The paper employs this triangulation strategy to examine the current state of the innovation systems of South Korea and the Netherlands. These indicators are thereafter used for the evaluation of the systemness in configurations of university-industry-government relations. South Korea is becoming somewhat stronger than the Netherlands in terms of scientific and technological outputs and in terms of the knowledge-based dynamics; South Korea’s portfolio is more traditional than that of the Netherlands. For example, research and patenting in the biomedical sector is underdeveloped. In terms of the Internet-economy, the Netherlands seem oriented towards global trends more than South Korea; this may be due to the high component of services in the Dutch economy.
This paper suggests an
international benchmarking method of disembodied knowledge flow structure.
Using patent citation as a proxy measure of disembodied knowledge flow,
national knowledge network is developed. Structural equivalence measure is
applied to comparing the knowledge network of Korea and Taiwan with that of
USA. Static and dynamic comparison make it possible to benchmark disembodied
knowledge flow structure efficiently and identify convergent and divergent industries between
developing countries and USA. It is also a meso-study that could be conducive
to building a comprehensive analytical framework of national innovation system.
Because R&D conducted in electronics and chemistry has made significant contributions to South Korean economic development,
past strategies in technology developments in these fields are addressed. The possibility of capturing national technology
strategy and policy characteristics from patent analyses is explored. For the analysis, data were analyzed from 557 US patents
in electronics and 108 US patents in chemistry, registered by Korean inventors, between 1989 and 1992. Descriptive statistics
of aggregated patent information were equivalently mapped to each strategy in the two fields. Industry-specific features and
past technology strategies in electronics and chemistry are identified. Electronics was driven by the private sector, while
chemistry was driven by the public sector. Inventors in both fields are seeking clustered innovation on which subsequent innovation
can be accumulated and/or applied to numerous heterogeneous fields. Contrary to the stated assumption, many Korean electronic
innovations were based on scientific outputs such as papers. Of the knowledge strategy variables, size of invention and number
of heterogeneous classifications are considered to be an important factor that affects patent citation counts in both fields.
Summary Institutions and their aggregates are not the right units of analysis for developing a science policy with cognitive goals in view. Institutions, however, can be compared in terms of their performance with reference to their previous stages. King's (2004) 'The scientific impact of nations' has provided the data for this comparison. Evaluation of the data from this perspective along the time axis leads to completely different and hitherto overlooked conclusions: a new dynamic can be revealed which points to a group of emerging nations. These nations do not increase their contributions marginally, but their national science systems grow endogenously. In addition to publications, their citation rates keep pace with the exponential growth patterns, albeit with a delay. The center of gravity of the world system of science may be changing accordingly.
The quality and value of a patent can be represented by several proxies, such as how often the patent is cited in other patents,
whether it is licensed, and the age of the patent. The paper uses a binary choice model to investigate factors affecting patent
licensing, and it uses double-bounded tobit and duration models to investigate factors affecting patent life. Explanatory
variables and dependent variables are extracted from U.S. patent information and related data. Findings suggest research collaboration
has a positive effect on both patent licensing and patent life. Other characteristics such as invention size, namely, the
scope of the invention measured by number of claims, and organizational technological cumulativeness, measured by self-citation
counts, also affect patent life.
This article compares empirically the major factors affecting blinded and sighted reviewers in the selection of research proposals to be funded in a "scientifically small" country. Fisher's Z-test shows that the applicant characteristics (rank of undergraduate school where the applicant studied, professional age of the applicant, and academic recognition of the applicant) are the major factors leading to the significantly different evaluation scores between blinded and sighted reviewers. This means that "open" evaluation of research proposals is obviously biased. Policy implications of the findings and future research directions are discussed.