Authors:Štefan Bojnec, Imre Fertő, Attila Jámbor, and József Tóth
Technical efficiency in agriculture of 10 new EU member states is analysed by Data Envelopment Analysis and econometric panel data analysis. Technical efficiency in agriculture is significantly positively associated with agricultural factor endowments, average farm size, farm specialisation, small-scale farms, and technological change. Foreign direct investments have an ambiguous effect. Reform and institutional developments, large-scale privatisation and price liberalisation, and urban- rural income gap are associated with technical efficiency in agriculture positively. An increase in technical efficiency in agriculture and the development of the rural economy are seen as a strategy to boost the level of living standards in agriculture and in rural areas.
Labour-market analysis places much emphasis on the concept of search. But there is insufficient empirical information on (a) the relationship between reported job-search and job-finding and (b) how search behaviour changes over a spell without work. We investigate these issues using a sample constructed from Hungarian labour-force survey panel data of the flow from jobs to the state of “joblessness”. The results on job exits call into question aspects of the standard international classification of “unemployment”and being “out of the labour force”. Transitions during joblessness in and out of search and among the various categories of non-search are found to be only modest.
China has persevered its market-oriented economic transition since 1978. In this paper, we use the provincial-level NERI Index of Marketization from 1997 to 2014 and a panel data model to investigate the quantitative contribution of market-oriented reforms to China’s total factor productivity (TFP) and economic growth. Our results indicate that marketization reforms contributed 1.3 percentage points to China’s annual economic growth rate and accounted for 35 percent of the increase in TFP. This means that the institutional reforms significantly improved resource allocation. However, economic transition in China has not yet been completed and sustainability of future growth will depend on further market-oriented reforms.
Logistics industry, being the modern industry integrating information, forwarding, warehousing, and transportation, plays an important role in optimizing the industrial structure in regional economic development. There have been many experts and scholars interpreting the relationship between the level of regional economy and logistics industry from the aspect of econometric model. Referring to existing research results, Panel Vector Autoregressive Model and Factor Analysis are applied to study panel data of 5 coastal provinces in past 20 years and construct relevant indicators reflecting logistic competitiveness, the level of regional economy, and degree of openness in order to explore the linkage effect between logistic competitiveness and the level of regional economy. The results suggest that the 5 coastal provinces can merely achieve the long-term and steady development of regional economy by moving towards the linkage development between logistic industry and manufacturing industry.
This paper tests new implications of the asymmetric tax competition model on diesel excise taxes. We extend the standard tax competition model by replacing the unit demand assumption with iso-elastic demand. As a result, not only the level of the equilibrium tax, but also the slope of the tax reaction function depends positively on the size of the country. The new implication is tested on panel data in first differences for 16 countries of Western Europe. The results provide strong evidence for strategic interaction in the setting of diesel excises and confirm the effect of country size on the response to tax changes in neighbouring countries. Strategic interaction between EU countries intensified in the mid-1990s and drove small European countries to set lower diesel tax rates. These results explain why the EU’s minimum tax policy has failed to harmonise diesel tax rates.
This research paper aims to provide an empirical validation of the impact of human capital accumulation and labour market institutions on productivity growth. The primary objective of this study is to analyse economic and employment growth tendencies in the period between 1985 and 2007 in various OECD member countries. In our estimations we followed a specific taxonomy to identify the features of output per capita growth in different labour-skilled branches. Besides determining the sectoral differences of labour demand by standard comparative statistics, we used a dynamic panel regression method to investigate the relationships between employment, human capital, labour institutions, and output per capita. We conclude that the high-skilled branches have achieved better economic growth performance than the lower-skilled ones in most of the OECD countries. Analysing the time series panel data of these countries our results also yield valid relationships between the level of education, labour unions and productivity growth in different branches.
Our aim is to explain why the post-communist countries were inclined to implement proportional income taxation schemes, given the broad variety of personal tax regimes and rates applied in the rest of the world. To resolve this problem a new type of social welfare function, allowing for variable (including negative) marginal utility of income, is introduced. This new approach improves our ability to comprehend the communist and post-communist social policy attitudes from a comparative standpoint. To verify our assertions, a probit regression model is applied. The empirical investigation is based on panel data including 42 countries from Europe and Central Asia for the period of 2000–2015. The primary inference is that the decisions to implement flat tax can be explained by the law of diminishing marginal utility of income and some additional policy-related factors. As it concerns the future, a successful catching-up strategy by the post-communist countries creates conditions for gradual abandonment of the flat tax practices.
CPB Working Paper
Ederveen, S. — Groot, H. de — Nahuis, R. (2006): Fertile soil for structural funds? A paneldata analysis of the conditional effectiveness of European Cohesion Policy.
Authors:Marinko Škare, Manuel Benazić, and Daniel Tomić
Breitung , J.
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