Authors:Azam Khodashenas Nikoo, Padmashekar, and Abdoullah Namdar
Many reasons can be offered for the employment of non-violence, it breaks the cycle of violence and counter-violence, and also it is the surest way of achieving public sympathy. It is the only method of struggle that is consistent with the teachings of the major religions. Non-violence can also be the basis for a way of life. It is consistent with a belief in the underlying unity of humankind. Truth and non-violence are not possible without a living belief in God. It is a fact that non-violent activism is more powerful and effective than violent activism. By the very law of nature all bad things are associated with violence, while all good things are associated with non-violence. Violent activities breed hatred in society, while non-violent activities elicit love. Violence is the way of destruction while non-violence is the way of construction. The program of Islam is divided to bring peace into three main phases: 1) peace with God, 2) peace within the community, and 3) peace with others. In the Qur’an peace is one of God’s names and the word sabr exactly expresses the notion of non-violence, as it is understood in modern times. Religion emphasizes that peace of mind comes from tolerance and contentment. In Jainism, non-violence is not limited to refraining from mental, verbal and physical injury to human beings. It encompasses abstaining from injury to all living beings – all animals and plants.
Driesch Angela Von Den 1976 A Guide to the Measurement of Animal Bones from Archaeological Sites as developed by the Institut für Palaeoanatomie, Domestikationsforschung und Geschichte der Tiermedizin of the University of Munich . Peabody
= G. Fancsalszky : Állat- és emberábrázolások a késő avar kori öntött bronz övvereteken — Animal and Human Depictions on Late Avar Belt Fittings. Opitz archaeologica 1. Budapest 2007.
Fettich 1926 = N. Fettich
Authors:Małgorzata Kaczanowska and Janusz Kozłowski
The findings of the project addressing Early Neolithic lifeways in Central Europe were published in 2013 (P. Bickle, A. Whittle). As part of this research project, samples from human and animal skeletons from various Linearbandkeramik (LBK) sites of the immense area extending from Transdanubia to Alsace were submitted to stable isotope analyses in order to reconstruct the mobility, diet and social structure of Early Neolithic groups. However, owing to the nature of the submitted samples, the conclusions drawn from the analyses cannot be applied to the early LBK phase because very few human remains are known from this period, especially from East Central Europe. Interaction between households and groups — as well as the crucial issue of LBK origins — can principally be reconstructed from the study of the material culture, especially from the analysis of lithic tools and pottery (and their raw materials).The study focuses on the early LBK phase, on the comparison of the material culture of Mesolithic foragers and the LBK, and on the assessment of the finds from LBK households and settlements. This analysis is restricted to the Central European diffusion of the LBK, to the main axis extending from Transdanubia to southern Poland.
Leonardo’s Adoration of the Magi’s (Galleria degli Uffizi) belongs to an iconographic and semantic tradition, which beneficed of an extraordinary evolution during the second half of the fifteenth century. In such representations the poor wooden construction described by the Bible is combined with the ruins of splendid classical buildings and mean the beginning of Christianity on one hand and the submitted pagan era on the other. A comparison of the two drawings of Leonardo, held in the Louvre and the Gabinetto Disegni e Stampe of the Uffizi, and the unfinished painting reveals the various steps of the development of the architectural background. Recent ultraviolet studies identified different solutions, conceived and then abandoned by Leonardo, which allow to reconstruct the ruins and architectural fragments in a more detailed manner. In the first version, the Holy family is placed before a heterogeneous structure of wood and stone, while an antique ruin with two flights of stairs raises on the right side. The drawing of the Uffizi focuses its attention on this ruin now shifted to the left side, while the stairs advance strongly toward the centre. On the right side a fragment of a classical order completes the feature, which evokes an antique forum. In the painting the Holy family is situated is the foreground, without any wooden construction to protect them, and the ruin, whose structure and position is slightly changed, is linked to it by the moving of figures and animals. Like in the drawing of the Uffizi many busy craftsmen reveal that the ruin is intended as a building site.
The parallel flights remind us of the church of San Sebastiano in Mantua, built according to Leon Battista Alberti’s project, and seems to have been inspired by the Roman temple of Claudius. In Lorenzo de’ Medici’s villa of Poggio a Caiano, begun in 1485, such a pattern had been adopted for the first time in a private building, introducing a complete metamorphosis of this type. Vasari records that several architects proposed drawings for this villa and if such a competition had taken place before Leonardo left Florence in 1482, the latter could have seen sketches or models, like those of Giuliano da Sangallo, and perhaps even proposed his own project. This could explain his interest for architectural features in his Adoration, a concern less present in his other paintings. No document confirms the hypothesis of a direct link between Lorenzo’s villa and the ruin of the Adoration, but it is sure that the latter one is nearly connected to the entourage of Lorenzo de’ Medici who promoted in this years a renewal of architectural typologies and idioms, founded on the principles of Leon Battista Alberti, the spiritus rector of Lorenzo’s youth.
When Perugino finished in 1496 another Adoration for the Augustans of San Scopeto he privileged the poor stable conformingly to the biblical tradition, perhaps as required by the monks. Leonardo’s ruin as building-site, as an original metaphor of the new Christian religion, had only little Nachleben. A significant testimony is however an Adoration about 1522/1523 attributed to Sebastiano Serlio, who could have known Leonardo’s bold architectural background through his master Baldassarre Peruzzi.
– Rabinowitz , Alexander (transl.) 1949 Timotheus of Gaza on Animals. Fragments of a Byzantine Paraphrase of an Animal-Book of the 5th century A.D. Collection de travaux de l’Académie internationale d’histoire des sciences 3 . Paris – Leiden . Braun