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, Barros Dos Santos KT , Moreira BM , Fracalanzza SEL , Bonelli RR . Antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae : history, molecular mechanisms and epidemiological aspects of an emerging global threat . Braz J Microbiol . 2017 ; 48 : 617 – 28

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European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
Authors: Isabel Stephany-Brassesco, Stefan Bereswill, Markus M. Heimesaat, and Matthias F. Melzig

GV . Antimicrobial use and the emergence of antimicrobial resistance with Streptococcus pneumoniae in the United States . Clin Infect Dis. 2001 ; 33 ( Suppl 3 ): S187 – 92 . 10.1086/321847 32

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Ambulatory Health Care Data . https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/ahcd/index.htm (Accessed: 21st of January, 2019) . 7. Puglisi S , Privitera S , Maiolino L , Serra A , Garotta M , Blandino G , Bacteriological findings and antimicrobial resistance

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antimicrobial resistance in zoonotic and indicator bacteria from humans, animals and food in 2017 . EFSA J 2019 ; 17 : e05598 . 19. Sokovic M , Glamoclija J , Marin PD , Brkic D , van Griensven LJ . Antibacterial effects of the essential oils

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European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
Authors: E. Sapi, K. Gupta, K. Wawrzeniak, G. Gaur, J. Torres, K. Filush, A. Melillo, and B. Zelger

antimicrobial treatments [ 40 ]. Diabetic foot ulcers show polymicrobial infection involving S. aureus , P. aeruginosa , and E. coli at the site of infection, slowing the healing process and, in some cases, leading to antimicrobial resistance [ 83 ]. These

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Abstract

Molecular epidemiology and genetic features of an extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing Klebsiella pneumoniae epidemic clone (KP-EC) with elevated ciprofloxacin MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) values from multiple nosocomial outbreaks and sporadic cases between 2006 and 2008 in Hungary were investigated.

As a result of continuous monitoring of ESBL-producing KP-ECs, 27 isolates collected from five healthcare facilities were selected for macrorestriction profile analysis by PFGE (pulsed field gel electrophoresis). Of these, 12 strains were isolated from adult inpatients, while 15 strains were from newborns. The MIC values for several antibiotics were determined by agar dilution technique. Molecular typing was further performed by PCR (polymerase chain reaction) and sequencing of several antibiotic resistance genes, plasmid profile analysis, transfer of resistance determinants and multilocus sequence typing (MLST).

All isolates showed moderate resistance to ciprofloxacin (MICs ranged from 0.5 to 8 mg L−1). PFGE revealed the existence of only one genetic cluster defined as EC IV. PstI digestion of plasmid DNA revealed two highly diverse restriction patterns in “adult” and “newborn” isolates corresponding to plasmids from the Hungarian Epidemic Clone and plasmids isolated from a neonatal nosocomial outbreak in 1998, respectively. Sequence analysis of b-lactamase genes from plasmids of 14 selected isolates detected bla SHV-2a in strains isolated exclusively from newborns and bla CTX-M-15 in strains isolated exclusively from adult inpatients. MLST established that strains of the PFGE cluster belonged to a novel sequence type ST274.

ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae isolates belonging to the novel sequence type ST274 appeared in the newborn and adult hospital settings in Hungary and acquired SHV-2a or CTX-M-15 type enzymes, respectively. Thus, a new antimicrobial resistance strategy for successful conformation to distinct hospital settings was found.

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2012 Mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria; general approach Int J Pharma Med Biol Sci 1 2 166 187 . 4

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World Health Organization (2014): Antimicrobial Resistance Global Report on Surveillance. WHO Press, Geneva Antimicrobial Resistance Global Report on

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European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
Authors: Usman Ali Khan, Dr. Hazir Rahman, Zeeshan Niaz, Muhammad Qasim, Jafar Khan, Tayyaba, and Bushra Rehman

antimicrobial resistance: insights from economic analysis Int J Environ Res Public Health 7 3141 3149 . 12. Y

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. Yismaw , G. , Negeri , C. & Kassu , A. ( 2006 ): A five-year antimicrobial resistance pattern observed in Shigella species isolated from stool samples in Gondar University Hospital, northwest Ethiopia . Ethiop. J. Health Dev

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