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Thermal decomposition of the carbon nanotube/SiO2precursor powders

Thermal analysis coupled with mass spectrometry

Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors:
H. Yu
,
C. Lu
,
T. Xi
,
L. Luo
,
J. Ning
, and
C. Xiang

Summary  

TG-DSC-MS (thermogravimetry-differential scanning calorimetry-mass spectrometry) coupling techniques were used to make a simultaneous characterizing study for the thermal decomposition process of the carbon nanotube (CNT)/SiO2precursor powders prepared by rapid sol-gel method. The thermal stability of the CNT and the SiO2pure gel were investigated by TG-DSC. The results showed that the oxidation of CNT began from 530 and combusted at about 678C at the heating rate of 10C min-1in air. Moreover, the faster the heating rate, the higher the temperature of CNT combustion. The appropriate calcinations temperature of the CNT/SiO2precursor powders should be held for 1 h at 500C.

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Abstract  

Ultrahigh molecular mass polyethylene (UHMMPE) is filled with carbon nano-tubes (CNTs) by solution in the presence of maleic anhydride grafted styrene-(ethylene-co-butylene)-styrene copolymer (MA-SEBS) as a compatibilizer. The UHMMPE/CNT composites crystallized from melt were prepared at a cooling rate of 20C min-1. The melting and crystallization behaviors of UHMMPE/ CNT composites were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry. The results showed that onset melting temperature (T m) and degree of crystallinity (X c) of UHMMPE/CNT composites crystallized from solution are higher than those from melt due to the larger crystalline lamellar thickness. The onset crystallization temperature (T c) of UHMMPE/CNT composites tends to shift to higher temperature region with increasing CNT content in the composites. Tm and Tc of UHMMPE phase in UHMMPE/CNT composites decrease with the addition of MA-SEBS. Moreover, the crystallization rate of UHMMPE phase in UHMMPE/CNT composite is increased due to the introduction of CNTs. MA-SEBS acts as compatilizer, enhances the dispersion of CNTs in the UHMMPE matrix. Thereby, the crystallization rate of UHMMPE phase in UHMMPE/CNT composite is further increased with the addition of MA-SEBS.

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Abstract  

Thermoanalytical and electron microscopic methods were used as characterisation tools for the determination of the composition of single walled carbon nanotube samples. Acid purification method of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCN) proved to be effective, resulting in a three fold increase in the percentage of SWNTs present in the purified product as determined by thermogravimetric analysis. In this work we report the thermogravimetric analysis by conventional and high resolution methods of the raw SWNTs and purified SWNTs.

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Abstract  

Nanocomposites of polycarbonate (PC) containing low concentrations of pristine and COOH and OH functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs, COOH-SWNTs and OH-SWNTs) were prepared by melt-mixing and analyzed using rheology and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The steady state and linear viscoelastic behavior of each nanocomposite material is presented and compared to that of the neat PC. SEM analysis revealed that samples containing functionalized SWNTs were more dispersible than samples containing the pristine SWNTs.

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Abstract  

Modified carbon multiwall nanotubes were prepared via the oxidation process by means of 65% nitric acid or ferric nitrate dissolved with 65% nitric acid. Using special thermogravimetry and sorptometry methods physicochemical properties of pure and modified nanotube surfaces were investigated. A numerical and analytical procedure for the evaluation of total heterogeneous properties on the basis of liquid thermodesorption from the sample surfaces under the quasi-equilibrium conditions are presented. The calculations of the fractal dimensions of carbon nanotubes using the sorptometry and thermogravimetry data is presented.

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Abstract  

Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGAA) were used to characterize a variety of single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) materials from different principal production processes, as well as a material containing SWCNTs together with other carbon species, catalyst residues, and trace element contaminants to be issued by the National Institute of Standards and Technology for characterization and distribution as Standard Reference Material SRM 2483 Carbon Nanotube Soot. INAA proved to be well suited for the direct determination of catalyst and contaminant trace elements requiring only minimal sample preparation. PGAA complemented the INAA data in particular with determinations of the light elements. Carbon and hydrogen results provided information on the materials purity and storage properties. Strategies for the quality assurance of the measurements in these new materials were developed. INAA and PGAA data were provided for the value assignment of mass fractions of catalyst and trace elements in the candidate SRM and a systematic overview was obtained of the catalyst and trace element contaminants associated with each of the major production routes.

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Abstract  

The sorption of Pu(IV), polymeric Pu(IV), Pu(V) and Pu(VI) from the 0.1 M NaClO4 solution onto multiwalled carbon nanotubes was investigated. The kinetic study of the sorption process have shown that the polymeric Pu(IV) has the highest sorption rate, while decrease of sorption rate for plutonium aqua-ions in the order Pu(VI) > Pu(IV) > Pu(V) was found. Strong dependence of sorption kinetics of ionic plutonium species on pH was shown, in contrast to polymeric species, that were shown to quantitatively sorb (99%) in the wide pH range (pH 2–10). Two different sorption mechanisms for ionic and polymeric plutonium species were proposed: on the bases of sorption isotherms chemisorptions of plutonium aqua-ions onto carbon nanotubes and through intermolecular interaction for the polymeric plutonium species was defined. Distribution coefficients of plutonium in various oxidation states were found to increase with pH, showing the highest values for polymeric plutonium sorption (K d  = 2.4 × 105 mL g−1 at pH = 6).

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Abstract  

Many concerns over unsafe or unknown properties of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) have been raised. The thermal characteristics regarding stability would represent potential hazards during the production or utilization stage and could be determined by calorimetric tests for various thermokinetic parameters. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was employed to evaluate the thermokinetic parameters for MWNTs at various compositions. Thermoanalytical curves showed that the average heat of decomposition (ΔH d) of the MWNTs samples in a manufacturing process was about 31,723 J g−1, by identifying them as an inherently hazardous material. In this study, significant thermal analysis appeared in the presence of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). From the DSC experiments, the purification process of MWNTs could induce an unexpected reaction in the condition of batch addition with reactants of H2SO4. The results can be applied for designing emergency relief system and emergency rescue strategies during a perturbed situation or accident.

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Abstract  

Diglycolamide functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (DGA-MWCNTs) were synthesized by sequential chemical reactions for removal of uranium from aqueous solution. Characterization studies were carried out using FT-IR spectroscopy, XRD and SEM analysis. Adsorption of uranium from aqueous solution on this material was studied as a function of nitric acid concentration, adsorbent dose and initial uranium concentration. The uranium adsorption data on DGA-MWCNTs followed the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms. The adsorption capacity of DGA-MWCNTs as well as adsorption isotherms and the effect of temperature on uranium ion adsorption were investigated. The standard enthalpy, entropy, and free energy of adsorption of the uranium with DGA-MWCNTs were calculated to be 6.09 kJ mole−1, 0.106 kJ mole−1 K−1 and −25.51 kJ mole−1 respectively at 298K. The results suggest that DGA-MWCNTs can be used as efficient adsorbent for uranium ion removal.

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Abstract  

Bidendate nitrogen ligands, particularly 1,10-phenanthroline, form stable complexes with a variety of divalent metal ions. If these ligands are attached to a stable, inert platform, then they may be used for sequestering transition metal ions from a range of aqueous solutions including many that form components of industrial processes. Alternatively, they may function as a base for the development of durable heterogeneous catalysts. These ligands may be tethered to carboxyl-functionalized carbon nanotubes via an ethylene oxide linker through either an ether or ester bond. The suitability of these adducts for a variety of applications has been assessed using thermogravimetry. Both kinds of adducts are thermally robust with an onset of degradation above 400 °C.

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