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Scientometrics
Authors:
Reindert K. Buter
,
Ed. C. M. Noyons
, and
Anthony F. J. Van Raan

or tools. In this paper, we describe a process that locates converging research based on journal subject categories in the Web of Science database as proxies for fields. Citations (from one field to another) are used to measure

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-field normalisation of scientometric indicators for evaluative purposes. Other papers on this issue have shown that subfield-specific normalised citation indicators are useful tools for the comparative assessment of objects with deviating profile (Glänzel et al. 2009

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impact Scientometrics 46 575 – 589 . 5. Garfield , E. , The use of journal impact factors and citation analysis for evaluation

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Scientometrics
Authors:
H. Small
and
E. Sweeney

Abstract  

Earlier experiments in the use of co-citations to cluster theScience citation Indey (SCI) database are reviewed. Two proposed improvements in the methodology are introduced: fractional citation counting and variable level clustering with a maximum cluster size limit. Results of an experiment using the 1979SCI are described comparing the new methods with those previously employed. It is found that fractional citation counting helps reduce the bias toward high referencing fields such as biomedicine and biochemistry inherent in the use of an integer citation count threshold, and increases the range of subject matters covered by clusters. Variable level clustering, on the other hand, increases recall as measured by the percentage of highly cited items included in clusters. It is concluded that the two new methods used in combination will improve our ability to generate comprehensive maps of science as envisioned byDerek Price. This topic will be discussed in a forthcoming paper.

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) (hereafter referred to as RFC) found a universal distribution for one such relative measure of the number of citations each paper received. The universality found by RFC was demonstrated across a wide range of scientific disciplines using the commercial

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journal-journal citations be used as indicators of change in the social sciences? Journal of Documentation 59 1 84 – 104

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Abstract  

Self-citations — those where authors cite their own works — account for a significant portion of all citations. These self-references may result from the cumulative nature of individual research, the need for personal gratification, or the value of self-citation as a rhetorical and tactical tool in the struggle for visibility and scientific authority. In this article we examine the incentives that underlie self-citation by studying how authors’ references to their own works affect the citations they receive from others. We report the results of a macro study of more than half a million citations to articles by Norwegian scientists that appeared in the Science Citation Index. We show that the more one cites oneself the more one is cited by other scholars. Controlling for numerous sources of variation in cumulative citations from others, our models suggest that each additional self-citation increases the number of citations from others by about one after one year, and by about three after five years. Moreover, there is no significant penalty for the most frequent self-citers — the effect of self-citation remains positive even for very high rates of self-citation. These results carry important policy implications for the use of citations to evaluate performance and distribute resources in science and they represent new information on the role and impact of self-citations in scientific communication.

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journals included in the Journal Citation Reports (JCR) are usually more highly valued and often obtain more citations than articles published in other journals. In some countries, research evaluation policies assign more points to articles published in

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Introduction Citation of an article represents availability of resources that forms the base for advancement of new research output, new interpretation of the content of the article or as an introduction to the subject. In the

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Scientometrics
Authors:
Saralees Nadarajah
and
Samuel Kotz

Abstract  

The number of citations of journal papers is an important measure of the impact of research. Thus, the modeling of citation behavior needs attention. Burrell, Egghe, Rousseau and others pioneered this type of modeling. Several models have been proposed for the citation distribution. In this note, we derive the most comprehensive collection of formulas for the citation distribution, covering some 17 flexible families. The corresponding estimation procedures are also derived by the method of moments. We feel that this work could serve as a useful reference for the modeling of citation behavior.

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